Examining a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using a construct validation approach
Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
2007 The British Psychological Society
British Journal of Educational Psychology
Volume 77, Issue 2, pages 413–440, June 2007
How to Cite
Martin, A. J. (2007), Examining a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using a construct validation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77: 413–440. doi: 10.1348/000709906X118036
- Issue published online: 24 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
- Received 26 May 2005; revised version received 16 May 2006
Background. This study seeks to examine a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using within- and between-network construct validation approaches.
Aims. The study tests the first- and higher-order factor structure of the motivation and engagement wheel and its corresponding measurement tool, the Motivation and Engagement Scale – High School (MES-HS; formerly the Student Motivation and Engagement Scale).
Sample. The study draws upon data from 12,237 high school students from 38 Australian high schools.
Methods. The hypothesized 11-factor first-order structure and the four-factor higher-order structure, their relationship with a set of between-network measures (class participation, enjoyment of school, educational aspirations), factor invariance across gender and year-level, and the effects of age and gender are examined using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.
Results. In terms of within-network validity, (1) the data confirm that the 11-factor and higher-order factor models of motivation and engagement are good fitting and (2) multigroup tests showed invariance across gender and year levels. In terms of between-network validity, (3) correlations with enjoyment of school, class participation and educational aspirations are in the hypothesized directions, and (4) girls reflect a more adaptive pattern of motivation and engagement, and year-level findings broadly confirm hypotheses that middle high school students seem to reflect a less adaptive pattern of motivation and engagement.
Conclusion. The first- and higher-order structures hold direct implications for educational practice and directions for future motivation and engagement research.