Background. Boredom has been found to be an important emotion for students' learning processes and achievement outcomes; however, the precursors of this emotion remain largely unexplored.
Aim. In the current study, scales assessing the precursors to boredom in academic achievement settings were developed and tested.
Sample. Participants were 1,380 grade 5–10 students in mathematics classes.
Method. The Precursors to Boredom Scales were tested for structural and convergent validity with multi-level confirmatory factor analyses (ML-CFA), and differences in the perception of the precursors of boredom due to gender were investigated.
Results. The first ML-CFA found support for the structural validity of the Precursors to Boredom Scales. In a second ML-CFA, the newly developed boredom scales showed good convergent validity with several key aspects of instructional quality. Finally, the results supported previous research that found no gender differences in academic self-concept and interest.
Conclusion. The precursors contained in our scales are empirically separable. Implications of the current findings for research on boredom among students are discussed.