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Objectives: The aims of the present study were (1) to examine the association between a cognitive distortion (‘thought-shape fusion’) and eating disorder psychopathology and (2) to examine the degree of thought-shape fusion in people with eating disorders and a non-eating-disorder control group.

Design: Associations between thought-shape fusion and eating disorder psychopathology were examined and the degree of thought-shape fusion was compared between people with and without clinical eating disorders.

Method: Forty-two women with clinical eating disorders and a group of 42 age-matched women with no self-reported history of an eating disorder completed self-report questionnaires to assess thought-shape fusion, eating disorder symptoms, body checking and body avoidance, and depression.

Results: Thought-shape fusion was significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of the associations remained significant when controlling for levels of depression. Patients with eating disorders showed significantly more thought-shape fusion than the non-clinical controls.

Conclusions: Thought-shape fusion is a cognitive distortion associated with eating disorders. It may be a direct expression of the overevaluation of eating, shape and weight. It is recommended that thought-shape fusion be tackled directly in cases where it is a barrier to changing the core psychopathology of eating disorders.