Gender differences in explicit and implicit risk attitudes: A socially facilitated phenomenon


Correspondence should be addressed to Do-Yeong Kim, School of Business, Ajou University, San 5, Wonchun-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon, South Korea, 443-749 (e-mail:


The present study (a) examined the question of whether gender differences in hypothetical risk decisions might be socially facilitated by the presence of gender-homogenous groups and (b) investigated the conscious and non-conscious motivators of risk-taking through the application of both explicit and implicit measures of risk attitude. Using hypothetical choice dilemma items, no gender difference was found at an individual level; however, when placed in-groups, males expressed a stronger pro-risk position than females. While males self-reported a stronger pro-risk position than did females on two explicit measures of risk-attitude, no gender differences were found on two parallel implicit measures. However, a newly developed implicit measure of risk-attitude showed its utility in the form of convergent, predictive and incremental validity with respect to a behavioural outcome.