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A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work–family conflict and job satisfaction relationship


Correspondence should be addressed to Alicia A. Grandey, Department of Psychology, 520 Moore Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA (e-mail:


Job satisfaction is one of the most frequently studied outcomes in the work–family conflict literature. This study extends the previous research examining the unique effects of work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW) on job satisfaction by (1) controlling for family, personal, and job characteristics of dual-earner couples, (2) employing cross-sectional and longitudinal methods, and (3) predicting job satisfaction with a spousal rating of the target's WIF. Consistent with previous research, WIF was related to job satisfaction cross-sectionally for men and women, and this effect existed beyond negative mood, job autonomy and monotony, and FIW. When predicting a change in job satisfaction a year later, and when using spouse rating of the target's WIF, WIF was predictive of women's job satisfaction but not men's, which is consistent with gender role theory. The fact that WIF predicted job satisfaction for women beyond affective and job characteristic variables, over time, and with non-self reported measures, provides more confidence in this directional relationship than could previously be assumed. Societal and managerial implications are discussed.