A multi-level perspective on the synergies between work and family
Version of Record online: 31 DEC 2010
2007 The British Psychological Society
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Volume 80, Issue 4, pages 559–574, December 2007
How to Cite
Grzywacz, J. G., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M. and Wayne, J. H. (2007), A multi-level perspective on the synergies between work and family. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80: 559–574. doi: 10.1348/096317906X163081
- Issue online: 31 DEC 2010
- Version of Record online: 31 DEC 2010
- Received 8 March 2005; revised version received 11 October 2006
- 1988). The effects of environmental change on individuals and groups: Some neglected issues in stress research. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 8, 57–75. Annual Theory Construction and Research Methodology Workshop (November). , & (
- Learning from failure: Towards an evolutionary model of collaborative ventures Organization Science 9 306–325 1998. ,
- Rhythms of life: Antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents Journal of Applied Psychology 90 132–146 2005. , ,
- Women, men, work, and family. An expansionist theory American Psychologist 56 781–796 2001. ,
- Positive-spillover effects from job to home: A closer look Women and Health 19 13–41 1992. , ,
- Measuring family competence: The Beavers systems model Walsh, F. Normal family processes 73–103 New York Guilford Press 1993. ,
- The effects of member expertise on group decision-making and performance Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 88 719–737 2002. , ,
- Understanding family process: Basics of family systems theory New Bury Park, CA Sage 1993.
- Ecological systems theory Vasta, R. Six theories of child development. Annals of child development: A research annual 6 187–249 Greenwich, CT JAI Press 1989.
- Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups Personnel Psychology 46 823–850 1993. , ,
- Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale Journal of Vocational Behaviour 68 131–164 2006. , , ,
- Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review Journal of Management 31 874–900 2005. ,
- Spillover from family to work: The neglected side of the work-family interface Human Relations 37 425–442 1984.
- Work-family conflict: A comparison by gender, family type, and perceived control Journal of Family Issues 15 449–466 1994. , ,
- Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002) Journal of Vocational Behaviour 66 127–197 2005. , , , ,
- Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs Academy of Management Review 25 178–199 2000. ,
- The McMaster model: View of healthy family functioning Walsh, F. Normal family processes 138–160 New York Guilford Press 1993. , , , ,
- What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology 2 300–319 1998.
- The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and- build theory of positive emotions American Psychologist 56 218–226 2001.
- Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing American Psychologist 60 678–686 2005. ,
- Work-family balance Quick, J. C., Tetrick, L. E. Handbook of occupational health psychology 143–162 Washington, DC American Psychological Association 2003.
- Does training in problem solving improve the quality of group decisions? Journal of Applied Psychology 76 479–483 1991. , ,
- A healthy divide: Subgroups as a stimulus for team learning behavior Administrative Science Quarterly 48 202–239 2003. ,
- Coverage and effectiveness of family-responsive workplace policies Human Resource Management Review 12 313–337 2002. ,
- A theory of role strain American Sociological Review 25 483–496 1960.
- Spouse, parent, worker: Role commitments and role-related experiences in the construction of adults' wellbeing Developmental Psychology 29 181–197 1993. ,
- Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity Academy of Management Review 9 438–448 1984. ,
- When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment Academy of Management Review 31 72–92 2006. ,
- 2002). Toward a theory of work-family enrichment. Paper presentation, 34th Annual Theory Construction and Research Methodology Workshop (November), Houston, TX. (
- Work, family, and mental health: Testing different models of work-family fit Journal of Marriage and Family 65 248–261 2003. ,
- The impact of job characteristics on work-to-family facilitation: Testing a theory and distinguishing a construct Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10 97–109 2005. ,
- Teams in organizations: Recent research on performance and effectiveness Annual Review of Psychology 47 307–338 1996. ,
- Psychology at the intersection of work and family: Recommendations for employers, working families, and policymakers American Psychologist 60 (5) 397–409 2005.
- A longitudinal study of the effects of dual-earner couples' utilization of family-friendly workplace supports on work and family outcomes Journal of Applied Psychology 90 799–810 2005. , , , ,
- 2006). Development and validation of multidimensional scale of perceived work-family positive spillover. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 249–265. , , & (
- Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 87 268–279 2002. , ,
- Work-family facilitation and conflict, working fathers and mothers, work-family stressors and support Journal of Family Issues 26 793–819 2005.
- Models for collaboration: How system dynamics helped a community organize cost-effective care for chronic illness System Dynamics Review 20 199–222 2004. , , ,
- Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work Academy of Management Journal 33 692–724 1990.
- The social psychology of organizations 2nd ed. New York Wiley 1978. ,
- Nonwork participation and work attitudes: A test of scarcity vs. expansion models of personal resources Human Relations 45 775–795 1992a.
- Perceptions of nonwork-to-work spillover: Challenging the common view of conflict-ridden domain relationships Basic and Applied Social Psychology 13 231–249 1992b.
- Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis Academy of Management Review 19 195–229 1994. , ,
- Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions San Francisco Jossey-Bass 2000.
- A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal and emergent processes Klein, K. J., Kozlowski, S. W. J. Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions 3–90 San Francisco Jossey-Bass 2000. ,
- The complex dynamics of high performance teams Mathematical and Computer Modeling 30 179–192 1999.
- The role of positivity and connectivity in the performance of business teams American Behavioral Scientist 47 740–765 2004. ,
- The need for and meaning of positive organization behaviour Journal of Organizational Behaviour 23 695–706 2002.
- Don't stop at the borders: Dynamic and contextual approaches to theorizing about work and family Bengtson, V. L., Acock, A. C., Allen, K. R., Dilworth-Anderson, P., Klein, D. M. Sourcebook on family theory and research methods 493–516 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage 2005. , ,
- Does it hurt to care? Caregiving, work-family conflict, and midlife well-being Journal of Marriage and the Family 60 951–966 1998.
- Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time, and commitment American Sociological Review 42 921–936 1977.
- Multiple roles and the self: A theory of role balance Journal of Marriage and the Family 58 417–432 1996. ,
- The second cybernetics: Deviation-amplifying mutual causal processes American Scientist 51 164–179 1963.
- Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semiparametric, group-based approach Psychological Methods 4 139–157 1999.
- Circumplex model of marital and family systems: Assessing family functioning Walsh, F. Normal family processes 2nd ed. 104–137 New York Guilford Press 1993.
- Toward reducing some critical gaps in work-family research Human Resource Management Review 12 299–312 2002. ,
- Family structure and effective health behaviour: The energized family Boston, MS Houghton Mifflin Company 1976.
- Effects of daily workload on subsequent behaviour during marital interaction: The roles of social withdrawal and spouse support Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 651–659 1989.
- Modeling uncertainty in latent class membership: A case study in criminology Journal of the American Statistical Association 94 447 766 1999. , ,
- Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles Administrative Science Quarterly 46 655–684 2001.
- Issues of level in organizational research: Multilevel and cross level perspectives Cummings, L. L., Staw, B. M. Research in organizational research 7 1–37 Greenwich, CT JAI Press 1985.
- Benefits of multiple roles for managerial women Academy of Management Journal 45 36–386 2002. , , ,
- What is enough? A systems perspective on individual-organizational performance linkages Harris, D. H. Organizational linkages: Understanding the productivity paradox 81–104 Washington, DC National Academy Press 1994. ,
- Toward a theory of role accumulation American Sociological Review 39 567–578 1974.
- Where two roles intersect: Spillover between parent care and employment Psychology and Aging 12 30–37 1997. , ,
- Multiple identities and psychological well-being: A reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis American Sociological Review 48 174–187 1983.
- Emotional transmission in couples under stress Journal of Marriage and the Family 61 38–48 1999. ,
- Task adaptive behaviour and performance in groups Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 3 367–387 2000. , , ,
- The differential salience of family and community demands and resources for family-to-work conflict and facilitation Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26 395–417 2005.
- Interacting effects of multiple roles on women's health Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 39 216–236 1998. , ,
- Work-family facilitation: A theoretical explanation and model of primary antecedents and consequences Human Resource Management Review 17 63–76 2007. , , ,
- Considering the role of personality in the work-family experience: Relationships of the big five to work-family conflict and facilitation Journal of Vocational Behaviour 64 108–130 2004. , ,
- Bringing work stress home Eckenrode, J., Gore, S. Stress between work and family 17–37 New York Plenum Press 1990.
- Changing views of work and family roles: A symbiotic perspective Human Resource Management Review 12 293–298 2002. ,
- Stress and strain crossover Human Relations 54 717–752 2001.
- Getting out of our conceptual ruts: Strategies for expanding conceptual frameworks American Psychologist 40 1094–1103 1985.