Interface between work and family: A longitudinal individual and crossover perspective


Correspondence should be addressed to Professor Ulla Kinnunen, Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland (e-mail:


This study assessed longitudinal individual and crossover relationships between work-family conflict and well-being in the domains of work (job satisfaction) and family (parental distress) in a sample of 239 dual-earner couples. The results revealed only longitudinal individual effects over a 1-year period. First, high family-to-work conflict (WFC) at Time 1 was related to a high level of work-to-family conflict (WFC) 1 year later in both partners. Second, the wife's high level of FWC was related to her decreased job satisfaction 1 year later. Thus, the longitudinal effects identified supported normal causality, that is, work-family conflict led to poor well-being outcomes or increased perceived work-family conflict later on. Longitudinal crossover effects from one partner to another were not observed within a 1-year perspective.