Pro-self, prosocial, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behaviour: Differential antecedents and consequences


Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Frank D. Belschak, University of Amsterdam Business School, Department of HRM-OB, Plantage Muidergracht 12, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (e-mail:


The paper aims to further knowledge of proactive employee behaviour by exploring whether pro-organizational, prosocial, and pro-self focused proactive behaviour can be measured in an empirically distinct manner, and whether these types of proactive behaviour show differential relationships with other variables. Results of two multi-source studies using self-rated and peer-rated measures empirically support the distinctiveness of the different foci of proactive behaviour. Study 1 (N = 117 dyads) shows that the different foci of proactive behaviour are differentially related to different foci of affective commitment. Study 2 (N = 126 dyads) builds on these findings and shows that different foci of proactive behaviour have differential relationships with transformational leadership, goal orientations, and individual task performance.