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Pro-self, prosocial, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behaviour: Differential antecedents and consequences

Authors

  • Frank D. Belschak,

    Corresponding author
    1. Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
      Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Frank D. Belschak, University of Amsterdam Business School, Department of HRM-OB, Plantage Muidergracht 12, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (e-mail: f.d.belschak@uva.nl)
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  • Deanne N. Den Hartog

    1. Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Frank D. Belschak, University of Amsterdam Business School, Department of HRM-OB, Plantage Muidergracht 12, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (e-mail: f.d.belschak@uva.nl)

Abstract

The paper aims to further knowledge of proactive employee behaviour by exploring whether pro-organizational, prosocial, and pro-self focused proactive behaviour can be measured in an empirically distinct manner, and whether these types of proactive behaviour show differential relationships with other variables. Results of two multi-source studies using self-rated and peer-rated measures empirically support the distinctiveness of the different foci of proactive behaviour. Study 1 (N = 117 dyads) shows that the different foci of proactive behaviour are differentially related to different foci of affective commitment. Study 2 (N = 126 dyads) builds on these findings and shows that different foci of proactive behaviour have differential relationships with transformational leadership, goal orientations, and individual task performance.

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