Job resources and flow at work: Modelling the relationship via latent growth curve and mixture model methodology


should be addressed to Anne Mäkikangas, Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, PO Box 35, Jyväskylä 40014, Finland (e-mail:


The aim of the present three-wave follow-up study (n = 335) among employees of an employment agency was to investigate the association between job resources and work-related flow utilizing both variable- and person-oriented approaches. In addition, emotional exhaustion was studied as a moderator of the job resources–flow relationship, and as a predictor of the development of job resources and flow. The variable-oriented approach, based on latent growth curve analyses, revealed that the levels of job resources and flow at work, as well as changes in these variables, were positively associated with each other. The person-oriented inspection with the growth mixture modelling identified four trajectories based on the mean levels of job resources and flow and on the changes of these mean levels over time: (a) moderate work-related resources (n = 166), (b) declining work-related resources (n = 87), (c) high work-related resources (n = 46), and (d) low work-related resources (n = 36). Exhaustion was found to be an important predictor of job resources and flow, but it did not moderate their mutual association. Specifically, a low level of exhaustion was found to predict high levels of job resources and flow. Overall, these results suggest the importance of a person-oriented view of motivational processes at work. In addition, in order to fully understand positive motivational processes it seems important to investigate the role of negative well-being states as well.