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Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs


Correspondence should be addressed to Jeffrey P. Thomas, FIU Department of Psychology, Florida International University, DM 256, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA (e-mail:


This meta-analysis of 103 independent samples provides a comparative evaluation of the relationships associated with four emergent proactive constructs including proactive personality, personal initiative, voice, and taking charge. This study investigates comparative relationships among these focal proactive constructs and key organizational variables (i.e., job performance), personality traits (i.e., the Big Five), and individual variables (i.e., work experience). Results reveal significant correlations between proactivity and performance, satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and social networking. Results also provide evidence that differentiates focal proactive constructs from the Big Five as well as individual differences in work experience, age, and general mental ability. Current progress towards a more integrative understanding of proactivity research is discussed.