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Curvilinear relationships between role stress and innovative performance were explored in a study conducted in Taiwan and mainland China. Results showed that when perceived support for innovation was low, role conflict showed a U-shaped relationship with both self-rated and supervisor-rated innovative performance, which contrasts sharply with the well known inverted U-shaped relationship between challenge stress and performance. Role ambiguity showed a similar but weaker pattern with regard to supervisor-rated innovative performance. When perceived support for innovation was high, role conflict showed a generally positive relationship with both self-rated and supervisor-rated innovative performance, but role ambiguity showed no significant relationship with supervisor-rated innovative performance. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.