Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership


Center for Leadership Studies, School of Management, Binghamton University, P.O. Box 6015, Binghamton, NY 13902-6015, USA (e-mail:


A total of 3786 respondents in 14 independent samples, ranging in size from 45 to 549 in US and foreign firms and agencies, completed the latest version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X), each describing their respective leader. Based on prior literature, nine models representing different factor structures were compared to determine the best fit for the MLQ survey. The models were tested in an original set of nine samples, and then in a second replication set comprised of five samples. Results indicated the factor structure for the MLQ survey was best represented by six lower order factors and three correlated higher-order factors.