Individual differences in male body-image: An examination of self-objectification in recreational body builders
Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
2005 The British Psychological Society
British Journal of Health Psychology
Volume 10, Issue 3, pages 453–465, September 2005
How to Cite
Hallsworth, Lisa., Wade, Tracey. and Tiggemann, Marika. (2005), Individual differences in male body-image: An examination of self-objectification in recreational body builders. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10: 453–465. doi: 10.1348/135910705X26966
- Issue published online: 24 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
- Received 28 June 2004; revised version received 8 September 2004
Objectives Male bodybuilders have been found previously to have higher levels of disordered eating and body-image disturbance than do other men. This study investigated whether objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) could be used to explain these observed differences in male body-image.
Design A cross-sectional, self-report design was used.
Methods Three samples of men were recruited: bodybuilders (N = 31), weightlifters (N = 17), and non-athletic controls (N = 35). Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of self-objectification, self-surveillance, body shame, appearance anxiety, and four outcomes: body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity, bulimia, and depression.
Results As predicted, bodybuilders had significantly higher levels of self-objectification than weightlifters and controls, and higher levels of body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity than controls. Overall, the relationships between self-objectification and the outcome variables, and self-surveillance and the outcome variables, were mediated by appearance anxiety.
Conclusions . Bodybuilding is associated with outcomes that suggest it may not result in greater overall health for men. It was concluded that objectification theory provides a useful framework for examining body-image differences in men.