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Effects of expressive writing among bilinguals: Exploring psychological well-being and social behaviour


Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Youngsuk Kim, General Practice and Primary Care Research Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK (e-mail:


Eighty-nine Korean-English and Spanish-English bilingual students expressively wrote in their native language, English, or both languages on four occasions or were assigned to a non-writing control group. In addition to self-reports of adjustment, participants wore a recording device that sampled their natural language at 30-second intervals every 12.5 min for 2 days both prior to and 1 month after the experiment. Overall, those assigned to the language switching condition showed the greatest improvements in adjustment and social engagement.