In this study, we sought to understand why people engage in these two forms of voluntary and discretionary behaviours. Expanding upon key resource theories to include individual abilities, we examined the idea of incongruence between resources and behaviours (i.e., resources that have been traditionally framed with a positive tone lead to negative behaviours and resources that have been traditionally framed with a negative tone lead to positive behaviours). Data from 234 employees revealed that impulsivity positively influenced organizational citizenship behaviours, and that emotional intelligence (EI) significantly contributed to deviant workplace behaviours. Post hoc analysis revealed that the ability to perceive emotions was the most influential branch of EI in predicting deviant behaviours. We thus found a non-compatible view of the individual resources–behaviour relationship, such that ‘positive’ personal resources lead to negative behaviours and ‘negative’ personal resources lead to positive behaviours. Implications for research and practice are discussed.