• 1
    World Health Organization 1994 Assessment of Fracture Risk and Its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, Report of a WHO Study Group, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 843. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 2
    Kleerekoper M, Nelson DA, Peterson EL, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P 1994 Reference data for bone mass, calciotropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in older (55–75) postmenopausal White and Black women. J Bone Miner Res 9:12671276.
  • 3
    Luckey MM, Meier DE, Mandeli JP, DaCosta MC, Hubbard ML, Goldsmith SJ 1989 Radial and vertebral bone density in White and Black women: Evidence for racial differences in premenopausal bone homeostasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69:762770.
  • 4
    Ettinger B, Sidney S, Cummings SR, Libanati C, Bikle DD, Tekawa IS, Tolan K, Steiger P 1997 Racial differences in bone density between young adult black and white subjects persist after adjustment for anthropometric, lifestyle, and biochemical differences. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:429434.
  • 5
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL 1996 Proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteoporos Int 5:389409.
  • 6
    Nelson DA, Barondess DA, Hendrix SL, Beck TJ 2000 Cross-sectional geometry, bone strength, and bone mass in the proximal femur in black and white postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 15:19921997.
  • 7
    Theobald TM, Cauley JA, Gluer CC, Bunker CH, Ukoli FA, Genant HK 1998 Black-white differences in hip geometry. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Osteoporos Int 8:6167.
  • 8
    Farmer ME, White LR, Brody JA 1984 Race and sex differences in hip fracture incidence. Am J Public Health 44:13741380.
  • 9
    Kellie SE, Brody JA 1990 Sex-specific and race-specific hip fracture rates. Am J Public Health 80:326328.
  • 10
    Silverman SL, Madison RE 1988 Decreased incidence of hip fracture in Hispanics, Asians, and blacks: California hospital discharge data. Am J Public Health 78:14821483.
  • 11
    Barrett JA, Baron JA, Karagas MR, Beach ML 1999 Fracture risk in the US Medicare population. J Clin Epidemiol 52:243249.
  • 12
    Daniels ED, Pettifor JM, Schnitzler CM, Russell SW, Patel DN 1995 Ethnic differences in bone density in female South African nurses. J Bone Miner Res 10:359367.
  • 13
    Solomon L 1979 Bone density in ageing Caucasian and African populations. Lancet 2:13261330.
  • 14
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Nelson D, Rao DS, Parfitt AM 1996 Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the structure and geometry of iliac bone. J Bone Miner Res 11:19671975.
  • 15
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM 1997 Effects of ethnicity and age or menopause on the remodeling and turnover of iliac bone: Implications for mechanisms of bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 12:498508.
  • 16
    Weinstein RS, Bell NH 1988 Diminished rates of bone formation in normal black adults. N Engl J Med 319:16981701.
  • 17
    Parisien M, Morgan D, Shen V, Schnitzer M, Liang X, Luckey M, Meier D, Nieves J, Cosman F, Lindsay R, Dempster DW 1995 Bone histomorphometry reveals subtle differences in bone formation between black and white premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 10:S1;S444.
  • 18
    Schnitzler CM, Pettifor JM, Mesquita JM, Bird MDT, Schnaid E, Snyth AE 1990 Histomorphometry of iliac crest bone in 346 normal black and white South African adults. Bone Miner 10:183199.
  • 19
    Schnitzler CM, Mesquita JM 1998 Bone marrow composition and bone microarchitecture and turnover in blacks and whites. J Bone Miner Res 13:13001307.
  • 20
    The Women's Health Initiative Study Group 1998 Design of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study. Control Clin Trials 19:61109.
  • 21
    Beck TJ, Looker AC, Ruff CB, Sievanen H, Wahner HW 2000 Structural trends in the aging femoral neck and proximal shaft: Analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data. J Bone Miner Res 15:22972304.
  • 22
    Martin R, Burr D 1984 Non-invasive measurement of long bone cross-sectional moment of inertia by photon absorptiometry. J Biomech 17:195201.
  • 23
    Beck TJ, Stone KL, Oreskovic TL, Hochberg MC, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Cummings SR 2001 Effects of current and discontinued estrogen replacement therapy on hip structural geometry: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:21032110.
  • 24
    Baron JA, Barrett J, Malenka D, Fisher E, Kniffin W, Bubolz T, Tosteson T 1994 Racial differences in fracture risk. Epidemiology 5:4247.
  • 25
    Silverman SL, Madison RE 1988 Decreased incidence of hip fracture in Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks: California Hospital Discharge Data. Am J Public Health 78:14821483.
  • 26
    Farmer ME, White LR, Brody JA, Bailey KR 1984 Race and sex differences in hip fracture incidence. Am J Public Health 74:13741380.
  • 27
    Solomon L 1968 Osteoporosis and fracture of the femoral neck in the South African Bantu. J Bone Joint Surg Br 50:211.
  • 28
    Rho JY, Kuhn-Spearing L, Zioupos P 1998 Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone. Med Eng Phys 20:92102.
  • 29
    Nurse GT, Weiner JS, Jenkins T 1985 The Peoples of Southern Africa and Their Affinities. Claredon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • 30
    Excoffier L, Pellegrini B, Sanchez-Mazas A, Simon C, Langaney A 1987 Genetics and history of sub-Saharan Africa. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 30:151194.
  • 31
    Parra EJ, Marcini A, Akey J, Martinson J, Batzer MA, Cooper R, Forrester T, Allison DB, Deka R, Ferrell RE, Shriver MD 1998 Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles. Am J Hum Genet 63:18391851.