• 1
    Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL 2003 Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 423:337342.
  • 2
    Karin M, Lin A 2002 NF-κB at the crossroads of life and death. Nat Immunol 3:221227.
  • 3
    Franzoso G, Carlson L, Xing L, Poljak L, Shores EW, Brown KD, Leonardi A, Tran T, Boyce BF, Siebenlist U 1997 Requirement for NF-κB in osteoclast and B-cell development. Genes Dev 11:34823496.
  • 4
    Di Virgilio F, Chiozzi P, Ferrari D, Falzoni S, Sanz JM, Morelli A, Torboli M, Bolognesi G, Baricordi OR 2001 Nucleotide receptors: An emerging family of regulatory molecules in blood cells. Blood 97:587600.
  • 5
    Born GV, Kratzer MA 1984 Source and concentration of extracellular adenosine triphosphate during haemostasis in rats, rabbits and man. J Physiol 354:419429.
  • 6
    Burnstock G 1995 Noradrenaline and ATP: Cotransmitters and neuromodulators. J Physiol Pharmacol 46:365384.
  • 7
    You J, Jacobs CR, Steinberg TH, Donahue HJ 2002 P2Y purinoceptors are responsible for oscillatory fluid flow-induced intracellular calcium mobilization in osteoblastic cells. J Biol Chem 277:4872448729.
  • 8
    Grygorczyk R, Hanrahan JW 1997 CFTR-independent ATP release from epithelial cells triggered by mechanical stimuli. Am J Physiol 272:C1058C1066.
  • 9
    Dixon SJ, Sims SM 2000 P2 purinergic receptors on osteoblasts and osteoclasts: Potential targets for drug development. Drug Dev Res 49:187200.
  • 10
    Ralevic V, Burnstock G 1998 Receptors for purines and pyrimidines. Pharmacol Rev 50:413492.
  • 11
    Surprenant A, Rassendren F, Kawashima E, North RA, Buell G 1996 The cytolytic P2Z receptor for extracellular ATP identified as a P2X receptor (P2X7). Science 272:735738.
  • 12
    Virginio C, MacKenzie A, Rassendren FA, North RA, Surprenant A 1999 Pore dilation of neuronal P2X receptor channels. Nat Neurosci 2:315321.
  • 13
    Khakh BS, Bao XR, Labarca C, Lester HA 1999 Neuronal P2X transmitter-gated cation channels change their ion selectivity in seconds. Nat Neurosci 2:322330.
  • 14
    Ke HZ, Qi H, Weidema AF, Zhang Q, Panupinthu N, Crawford DT, Grasser WA, Paralkar VM, Li M, Audoly LP, Gabel CA, Jee WS, Dixon SJ, Sims SM, Thompson DD 2003 Deletion of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor reveals its regulatory roles in bone formation and resorption. Mol Endocrinol 17:13561367.
  • 15
    Naemsch LN, Weidema AF, Sims SM, Underhill TM, Dixon SJ 1999 P2X4 purinoceptors mediate an ATP-activated, non-selective cation current in rabbit osteoclasts. J Cell Sci 112:44254435.
  • 16
    Jorgensen NR, Henriksen Z, Sorensen OH, Eriksen EF, Civitelli R, Steinberg TH 2002 Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors. J Biol Chem 277:75747580.
  • 17
    Gartland A, Buckley KA, Bowler WB, Gallagher JA 2003 Blockade of the pore-forming P2X7 receptor inhibits formation of multinucleated human osteoclasts in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 73:361369.
  • 18
    Morrison MS, Turin L, King BF, Burnstock G, Arnett TR 1998 ATP is a potent stimulator of the activation and formation of rodent osteoclasts. J Physiol 511:495500.
  • 19
    Chiozzi P, Sanz JM, Ferrari D, Falzoni S, Aleotti A, Buell GN, Collo G, Di Virgilio F 1997 Spontaneous cell fusion in macrophage cultures expressing high levels of the P2Z/P2X7 receptor. J Cell Biol 138:697706.
  • 20
    Hoebertz A, Arnett TR, Burnstock G 2003 Regulation of bone resorption and formation by purines and pyrimidines. Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:290297.
  • 21
    Modderman WE, Weidema AF, Vrijheid-Lammers T, Wassenaar AM, Nijweide PJ 1994 Permeabilization of cells of hemopoietic origin by extracellular ATP4−: Elimination of osteoclasts, macrophages, and their precursors from isolated bone cell populations and fetal bone rudiments. Calcif Tissue Int 55:141150.
  • 22
    Naemsch LN, Dixon SJ, Sims SM 2001 Activity-dependent development of P2X7 current and Ca2+ entry in rabbit osteoclasts. J Biol Chem 276:3910739114.
  • 23
    North RA 2002 Molecular physiology of P2X receptors. Physiol Rev 82:10131067.
  • 24
    Solle M, Labasi J, Perregaux DG, Stam E, Petrushova N, Koller BH, Griffiths RJ, Gabel CA 2001 Altered cytokine production in mice lacking P2X7 receptors. J Biol Chem 276:125132.
  • 25
    Tezuka K, Sato T, Kamioka H, Nijweide PJ, Tanaka K, Matsuo T, Ohta M, Kurihara N, Hakeda Y, Kumegawa M 1992 Identification of osteopontin in isolated rabbit osteoclasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 186:911917.
  • 26
    Pilkington MF, Sims SM, Dixon SJ 2001 Transforming growth factor-β induces osteoclast ruffling and chemotaxis: Potential role in osteoclast recruitment. J Bone Miner Res 16:12371247.
  • 27
    Weidema AF, Dixon SJ, Sims SM 2001 Activation of P2Y but not P2X4 nucleotide receptors causes elevation of [Ca2+]i in mammalian osteoclasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280:C1531C1539.
  • 28
    Komarova SV, Pilkington MF, Weidema AF, Dixon SJ, Sims SM 2003 RANK ligand-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ accelerates nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ B in osteoclasts. J Biol Chem 278:82868293.
  • 29
    Myers DE, Collier FM, Minkin C, Wang H, Holloway WR, Malakellis M, Nicholson GC 1999 Expression of functional RANK on mature rat and human osteoclasts. FEBS Lett 463:295300.
  • 30
    Dolmetsch RE, Xu K, Lewis RS 1998 Calcium oscillations increase the efficiency and specificity of gene expression. Nature 392:933936.
  • 31
    Chessell IP, Michel AD, Humphrey PP 1998 Effects of antagonists at the human recombinant P2X7 receptor. Br J Pharmacol 124:13141320.
  • 32
    Gargett CE, Cornish JE, Wiley JS 1997 ATP, a partial agonist for the P2Z receptor of human lymphocytes. Br J Pharmacol 122:911917.
  • 33
    Buckley KA, Hipskind RA, Gartland A, Bowler WB, Gallagher JA 2002 Adenosine triphosphate stimulates human osteoclast activity via upregulation of osteoblast-expressed receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand. Bone 31:582590.
  • 34
    Ferrari D, Chiozzi P, Falzoni S, Dal Susino M, Collo G, Buell G, Di Virgilio F 1997 ATP-mediated cytotoxicity in microglial cells. Neuropharmacology 36:12951301.
  • 35
    Hoebertz A, Townsend-Nicholson A, Glass R, Burnstock G, Arnett TR 2000 Expression of P2 receptors in bone and cultured bone cells. Bone 27:503510.
  • 36
    Bowler WB, Littlewood-Evans A, Bilbe G, Gallagher JA, Dixon CJ 1998 P2Y2 receptors are expressed by human osteoclasts of giant cell tumor but do not mediate ATP-induced bone resorption. Bone 22:195200.
  • 37
    Gartland A, Hipskind RA, Gallagher JA, Bowler WB 2001 Expression of a P2X7 receptor by a subpopulation of human osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res 16:846856.
  • 38
    Ferrari D, Wesselborg S, Bauer MK, Schulze-Osthoff K 1997 Extracellular ATP activates transcription factor NF-κB through the P2Z purinoreceptor by selectively targeting NF-κB p65. J Cell Biol 139:16351643.
  • 39
    Trushin SA, Pennington KN, Algeciras-Schimnich A, Paya CV 1999 Protein kinase C and calcineurin synergize to activate IκB kinase and NF-κB in T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 274:2292322931.
  • 40
    Humphreys BD, Rice J, Kertesy SB, Dubyak GR 2000 Stress-activated protein kinase/JNK activation and apoptotic induction by the macrophage P2X7 nucleotide receptor. J Biol Chem 275:2679226798.
  • 41
    Baricordi OR, Melchiorri L, Adinolfi E, Falzoni S, Chiozzi P, Buell G, Di Virgilio F 1999 Increased proliferation rate of lymphoid cells transfected with the P2X7 ATP receptor. J Biol Chem 274:3320633208.
  • 42
    Adinolfi E, Melchiorri L, Falzoni S, Chiozzi P, Morelli A, Tieghi A, Cuneo A, Castoldi G, Di Virgilio F, Baricordi OR 2002 P2X7 receptor expression in evolutive and indolent forms of chronic B lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 99:706708.
  • 43
    Baud V, Karin M 2001 Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor and its relatives. Trends Cell Biol 11:372377.