SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, Melton LJ III 1997 Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: Report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res 12: 2435.
  • 2
    Slemenda CW, Turner CH, Peacock M, Christian JC, Sorbel J, Hui SL, Johnston CC 1996 The genetics of proximal femur geometry, distribution of bone mass and bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 6: 178182.
  • 3
    Pocock NA, Eisman JA, Hopper JL, Yeates MG, Sambrook PN, Eberl S 1987 Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults. A twin study. J Clin Invest 80: 706710.
  • 4
    Massart F, Reginster JY, Brandi ML 2001 Genetics of menopause-associated diseases. Maturitas 40: 103116.
  • 5
    Flicker L, Hopper JL, Rodgers L, Kaymakci B, Green RM, Wark JD 1995 Bone density determinants in elderly women: A twin study. J Bone Miner Res 10: 16071613.
  • 6
    Kelly PJ, Nguyen T, Hopper J, Pocock N, Sambrook P, Eisman J 1993 Changes in axial bone density with age: A twin study. J Bone Miner Res 8: 1117.
  • 7
    Garnero P, Arden NK, Griffiths G, Delmas PD, Spector TD 1996 Genetic influence on bone turnover in postmenopausal twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 140146.
  • 8
    Kelly PJ, Hopper JL, Macaskill GT, Pocock NA, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1991 Genetic factors in bone turnover. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72: 808813.
  • 9
    Hunter D, De Lange M, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, Swaminathan R, Thakker RV, Spector TD 2001 Genetic contribution to bone metabolism, calcium excretion, and vitamin D and parathyroid hormone regulation. J Bone Miner Res 16: 371378.
  • 10
    Livshits G, Yakovenko C, Kobyliansky E 2000 Quantitative genetic analysis of circulating levels of biochemical markers of bone formation. Am J Med Genet 94: 324331.
  • 11
    Otremski I, Karasik D, Livshits G 2000 Genetic variation and covariation of parathyroid hormone levels and bone density in the human population. Calcif Tissue Int 66: 168175.
  • 12
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM 1995 Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332: 767773.
  • 13
    Pfeilschifter J, Koditz R, Pfohl M, Schatz H 2002 Changes in proinflammatory cytokine activity after menopause. Endocr Rev 23: 90119.
  • 14
    Manolagas SC 1995 Role of cytokines in bone resorption. Bone 17 (Suppl 2): 63S67S.
  • 15
    Ishimi Y, Miyaura C, Jin CH, Akatsu T, Abe E, Nakamura Y, Yamaguchi A, Yoshiki S, Matsuda T, Hirano T 1990 IL-6 is produced by osteoblasts and induces bone resorption. J Immunol 145: 32973303.
  • 16
    Tamura T, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Miyaura C, Tanaka S, Yamada Y, Koishihara Y, Ohsugi Y, Kumaki K, Taga T, Kishimoto T, Suda T 1993 Soluble interleukin-6 receptor triggers osteoclast formation by interleukin 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 1192411928.
  • 17
    Naka T, Nishimoto N, Kishimoto T 2002 The paradigm of IL-6: From basic science to medicine. Arthritis Res Ther 4 (Suppl 3): S233S242.
  • 18
    Murray RE, McGuigan F, Grant SF, Reid DM, Ralston SH 1997 Polymorphisms of the interleukin-6 gene are associated with bone mineral density. Bone 21: 8992.
  • 19
    Ota N, Hunt SC, Nakajima T, Suzuki T, Hosoi T, Orimo H, Shirai Y, Emi M 1999 Linkage of interleukin 6 locus to human osteopenia by sibling pair analysis. Hum Genet 105: 253257.
  • 20
    Takacs I, Koller DL, Peacock M, Christian JC, Evans WE, Hui SL, Conneally PM, Johnston CC Jr, Foroud T, Econs MJ 2000 Sib pair linkage and association studies between bone mineral density and the interleukin-6 gene locus. Bone 27: 169173.
  • 21
    Terry CF, Loukaci V, Green FR 2000 Cooperative influence of genetic polymorphisms on interleukin 6 transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem 275: 1813818144.
  • 22
    Fishman D, Faulds G, Jeffery R, Mohamed-Ali V, Yudkin JS, Humphries S, Woo P 1998 The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. J Clin Invest 102: 13691376.
  • 23
    Lorentzon M, Lorentzon R, Nordstrom P 2000 Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism is related to bone mineral density during and after puberty in healthy white males: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res 15: 19441949.
  • 24
    Ferrari SL, Garnero P, Emond S, Montgomery H, Humphries SE, Greenspan SL 2001 A functional polymorphic variant in the interleukin-6 gene promoter associated with low bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Arthritis Rheum 44: 196201.
  • 25
    Ferrari SL, Ahn-Luong L, Garnero P, Humphries SE, Greenspan SL 2003 Two promoter polymorphisms regulating interleukin-6 gene expression are associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein and markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 255259.
  • 26
    Garnero P, Borel O, Sornay-Rendu E, Duboeuf F, Jeffery R, Woo P, Delmas PD 2002 Association between a functional interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and peak bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss in women: The OFELY study. Bone 31: 4350.
  • 27
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, Genant HK, Mascioli SR, Scott JC, Seeley DG, Steiger P, Vogt TM 1990 Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. JAMA 263: 665668.
  • 28
    Steiger P, Cummings SR, Black DM, Spencer NE, Genant HK 1992 Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65. J Bone Miner Res 7: 625632.
  • 29
    Ensrud KE, Palermo L, Black DM, Cauley J, Jergas M, Orwoll ES, Nevitt MC, Fox KM, Cummings SR 1995 Hip and calcaneal bone loss increase with advancing age: Longitudinal results from the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 10: 17781787.
  • 30
    Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Seeley DG, Cauley JA, Vogt TM, Black DM 1992 The accuracy of self-report of fractures in elderly women: Evidence from a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 135: 490499.
  • 31
    Paffenbarger RS Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT 1978 Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol 108: 161175.
  • 32
    Morin PA, Saiz R, Monjazeb A 1999 High-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by fluorescent 5′ exonuclease assay. Biotechniques 27: 538544.
  • 33
    Cardon LR, Palmer LJ 2003 Population stratification and spurious allelic association. Lancet 361: 598604.
  • 34
    Lei SF, Deng FY, Liu XH, Huang QR, Qin Y, Zhou Q, Jiang DK, Li YM, Mo XY, Liu MY, Chen XD, Wu XS, Shen H, Dvornyk V, Zhao L, Recker RR, Deng HW 2003 Polymorphisms of four bone mineral density candidate genes in Chinese populations and comparison with other populations of different ethnicity. J Bone Miner Metab 21: 3442.
  • 35
    Scheidt-Nave C, Bismar H, Leidig-Bruckner G, Woitge H, Seibel MJ, Ziegler R, Pfeilschifter J 2001 Serum interleukin 6 is a major predictor of bone loss in women specific to the first decade past menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 20322042.
  • 36
    Kelsey JL, Browner WS, Seeley DG, Nevitt MC, Cummings SR 1992 Risk factors for fractures of the distal forearm and proximal humerus. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Am J Epidemiol 135: 477489.
  • 37
    Vogt MT, Cauley JA, Tomaino MM, Stone K, Williams JR, Herndon JH 2002 Distal radius fractures in older women: A 10-year follow-up study of descriptive characteristics and risk factors. The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc 50: 97103.
  • 38
    Beamer WG, Shultz KL, Donahue LR, Churchill GA, Sen S, Wergedal JR, Baylink DJ, Rosen CJ 2001 Quantitative trait loci for femoral and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains of mice. J Bone Miner Res 16: 11951206.
  • 39
    Ray A, LaForge KS, Sehgal PB 1990 On the mechanism for efficient repression of the interleukin-6 promoter by glucocorticoids: Enhancer, TATA box, and RNA start site (Inr motif) occlusion. Mol Cell Biol 10: 57365746.
  • 40
    Berthier MT, Paradis AM, Tchernof A, Bergeron J, Prud'homme D, Despres JP, Vohl MC 2003 The interleukin 6–174G/C polymorphism is associated with indices of obesity in men. J Hum Genet 48: 1419.
  • 41
    Fried SK, Bunkin DA, Greenberg AS 1998 Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin-6: Depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 847850.
  • 42
    Mohamed-Ali V, Goodrick S, Rawesh A, Katz DR, Miles JM, Yudkin JS, Klein S, Coppack SW 1997 Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 41964200.
  • 43
    Vozarova B, Weyer C, Hanson K, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C, Pratley RE 2001 Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action, and insulin secretion. Obes Res 9: 414417.
  • 44
    Wallenius V, Wallenius K, Ahren B, Rudling M, Carlsten H, Dickson SL, Ohlsson C, Jansson JO 2002 Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop mature-onset obesity. Nat Med 8: 7579.
  • 45
    Wallenius K, Wallenius V, Sunter D, Dickson SL, Jansson JO 2002 Intracerebroventricular interleukin-6 treatment decreases body fat in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293: 560565.
  • 46
    Purohit A, Reed MJ 2002 Regulation of estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal women. Steroids 67: 979983.
  • 47
    Purohit A, Newman SP, Reed MJ 2002 The role of cytokines in regulating estrogen synthesis: Implications for the etiology of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 4: 6569.
  • 48
    Feigelson HS, McKean-Cowdin R, Pike MC, Coetzee GA, Kolonel LN, Nomura AM, Le Marchand L, Henderson BE 1999 Cytochrome P450c17alpha gene (CYP17) polymorphism predicts use of hormone replacement therapy. Cancer Res 59: 39083910.
  • 49
    Lohmueller KE, Pearce CL, Pike M, Lander ES, Hirschhorn JN 2003 Meta-analysis of genetic association studies supports a contribution of common variants to susceptibility to common disease. Nat Genet 33: 177182.