• 1
    Russel RG, Rogers MJ 1999 Bisphosphonates: From the laboratory to the clinic and back again. Bone 25: 97106.
  • 2
    Fleisch H 1991 Bisphosphonates. Pharmacology and use in the treatment of tumour-induced hypercalcaemic and metastatic bone disease. Drugs 42: 919944.
  • 3
    Seeman E 1997 Osteoporosis: Trials and tribulations. Am J Med 103: S74S89.
  • 4
    Storm T, Thamsborg G, Steiniche T, Genant HK, Sorensen OH 1990 Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on bone mass and fracture rate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322: 12651271.
  • 5
    Hosking DJ, Eusebio RA, Chines AA 1998 Paget's disease of bone: Reduction of disease activity with oral risedronate. Bone 22: 5155.
  • 6
    Nyman MT, Paavolainen P, Lindholm TS 1993 Clodronate increases the calcium content in fracture callus. An experimental study in rats. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 112: 228231.
  • 7
    Fleisch H 2001 Can bisphosphonates be given to patients with fractures? J Bone Miner Res 16: 437440.
  • 8
    Goodship AE, Walker PC, McNally D, Chambers T, Green JR 1994 Use of a bisphosphonate (pamidronate) to modulate fracture repair in ovine bone. Ann Oncol 5 (Suppl): S53S55.
  • 9
    Nyman MT, Gao T, Lindholm TC, Lindholm TS 1996 Healing of a tibial double osteotomy is modified by clodronate administration. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 115: 111114.
  • 10
    Peter CP, Cook WO, Nunamaker DM, Provost MT, Seedor JG, Rodan GA 1996 Effect of alendronate on fracture healing and bone remodelling in dogs. J Orthop Res 14: 7479.
  • 11
    Madsen JE, Berg-Larsen T, Kirkeby OJ, Falch JA, Nordsletten L 1998 No adverse effects of clodronate on fracture healing in rats. Acta Orthop Scand 69: 532536.
  • 12
    Li J, Mori S, Kaji Y, Kawanishi J, Akiyama T, Norimatsu H 2000 Concentration of bisphosphonate (incadronate) in callus area and its effects on fracture healing in rats. J Bone Miner Res 15: 20422051.
  • 13
    Li J, Mori S, Li J, Kaji Y, Akiyama T, Kawanishi J, Norimatsu H 2002 Long term effect of icandronate disodium (YM-175) on fracture healing of femoral shaft in growing rats. J Bone Miner Res 16: 429436.
  • 14
    Little DG, Cornell MS, Briody J, Cowell CT, Arbuckle S, Cooke-Yarborough CM 2001 Intravenous pamidronate reduces osteoporosis and improves formation of the regenerate during distraction osteogenesis. A study in immature rabbits. J Bone Joint Surg Br 83: 10691074.
  • 15
    Little DG, Cornell MS, Hile MS, Briody J, Cowell CT, Bilston L 2001 Effect of pamidronate on distraction osteogenesis and fixator-related osteoporosis. Injury 32 (Suppl): SD14SD20.
  • 16
    Little DG, Smith NC, Williams PR, Broidy JN, Bilston LE, Smith EJ, Gardiner EM, Cowell CT 2003 Zoledronic acid prevents osteopenia and increases bone strength in a rabbit model of distraction osteogenesis. J Bone Miner Res 18: 13001307.
  • 17
    Simpson AH, Kenwright J 2000 Fracture after distraction osteogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 82: 659665.
  • 18
    Danziger MB, Kumar A, DeWeese J 1995 Fractures after femoral lengthening using the Ilizarov method. J Pediatr Orthop 15: 220223.
  • 19
    Schenk R, Merz WA, Muhlbauer R, Russell RG, Fleisch H 1973 Effect of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) and dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl 2 MDP) on the calcification and resorption of cartilage and bone in the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of rats. Calcif Tissue Res 11: 196214.
  • 20
    Larsson A, Larsson SE 1978 The effects of ethylene-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate on cellular transformation and organic matrix of the epiphyseal growth plate of the rat—a light microscopic and ultrastructural study. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 86: 211223.
  • 21
    Reinholz GG, Getz B, Pederson L, Sanders ES, Subramaniam M, Ingle JN, Spelsberg TC 2000 Bisphosphonates directly regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in human osteoblasts. Cancer Res 60: 60016007.
  • 22
    Giuliani N, Pedrazzoni M, Negri G, Passeri G, Impicciatore M, Girasole G 1998 Bisphosphonates stimulate formation of osteoblast precursors and mineralized nodules in murine and human bone marrow cultures in vitro and promote early osteoblastogenesis in young and aged mice in vivo. Bone 22: 455461.
  • 23
    Giuliani N, Pedrazzoni M, Passeri G, Negri G, Impicciatore M, Girasole G 1998 Bisphosphonates stimulate the production of basic fibroblast growth factor and the formation of bone marrow precursors of osteoblasts. New findings about their mechanism of action. Minerva Med 89: 249258.
  • 24
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry: Standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2: 595610.
  • 25
    Coxon FP, Helfrich MH, van't Hof R, Sebti S, Ralston SH, Hamilton A, Rogers MJ 2000 Protein geranylgeranylation is required for osteoclast formation, function, and survival: Inhibition by bisphosphonates and GGTI-298. J Bone Miner Res 15: 14671476.
  • 26
    Li G, Simpson AH, Triffitt JT 1999 The role of chondrocytes in intramembranous and endochondral ossification during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit. Calcif Tissue Int 64: 310317.
  • 27
    Li G, Virdi AS, Ashhurst DE, Simpson AH, Triffitt JT 2000 Tissues formed during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit are determined by the distraction rate: Localization of the cells that express the mRNAs and the distribution of types I and II collagens. Cell Biol Int 24: 2533.
  • 28
    Aronson J, Harrison BH, Stewart CL, Harp JH Jr 1989 The histology of distraction osteogenesis using different external fixators. Clin Orthop 241: 106116.
  • 29
    Ilizarov GA 1989 The tension-stress effect on the genesis and growth of tissues. Part I. The influence of stability of fixation and soft-tissue preservation. Clin Orthop 239: 263285.
  • 30
    Van Offel JF, Schuerwegh AJ, Bridts CH, Stevens WJ, De Clerck LS 2002 Effect of bisphosphonates on viability, proliferation, and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. Ann Rheum Dis 61: 925928.
  • 31
    Einhorn TA, Lee CA 2001 Bone regeneration: New findings and potential clinical applications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 9: 157165.
  • 32
    Lee FY, Choi YW, Behrens FF, DeFouw DO, Einhorn TA 1998 Programmed removal of chondrocytes during endochondral fracture healing. J Orthop Res 16: 144150.
  • 33
    Hiraoka N, Apel IJ, Gyetko MR, Weiss SJ, Allen E 1998 Matrix metalloproteinases regulate neovascularization by acting as pericellular fibronolysins. Cell 95: 365377.
  • 34
    Deckers MML, Van Beek ER, Van der Pluijm G, Wetterwald A, van der Wee-pals L, Cecchini MG, Papapoulos SE, Lowik CWGM 2002 Dissociation of angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis during endochondral bone formation in neonatal mice. J Bone Miner Res 17: 9981007.
  • 35
    Little DG, Peat RA, McEvoy A, Williams PR, Smith EJ, Baldock PA 2003 Zoledronic acid treatment results in retention of femoral head structure after traumatic osteonecrosis in young Wistar rats. J Bone Miner Res 18: 20162022.
  • 36
    Jimi E, Nakamura I, Amano H, Taguchi Y, Tsurukai T, Tamura M, Takahashi N, Suda T 1996 Osteoclast function is activated by osteoblastic cells through a mechanism involving cell-to-cell contact. Endocrinology 137: 21872190.
  • 37
    Vaes G 1988 Cellular biology and biochemical mechanism of bone resorption. A review of recent developments on the formation, activation, and mode of action of osteoclasts. Clin Orthop 231: 239271.
  • 38
    Silva MJ, Gibson LJ 1997 Modeling the mechanical behavior of vertebral trabecular bone: Effects of age-related changes in microstructure. Bone 21: 191199.