The authors have no conflict of interest
Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women†
Article first published online: 3 AUG 2004
Copyright © 2004 ASBMR
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume 19, Issue 10, pages 1634–1639, October 2004
How to Cite
Devine, A., Dhaliwal, S. S., Dick, I. M., Bollerslev, J. and Prince, R. L. (2004), Physical Activity and Calcium Consumption Are Important Determinants of Lower Limb Bone Mass in Older Women. J Bone Miner Res, 19: 1634–1639. doi: 10.1359/JBMR.040804
- Issue published online: 2 DEC 2009
- Article first published online: 3 AUG 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 MAY 2004
- Manuscript Revised: 2 APR 2004
- Manuscript Received: 18 DEC 2003
- elderly cohort;
- physical activity
A population-based study of 1363 older women showed that the 24% who achieved high physical activity and dietary calcium intakes had a 5.1% higher hip BMD than those who did not, supporting the concept that lifestyle factors play an important role in the maintenance of lower extremity bone mass in older women.
Introduction: Although there is general agreement that increased dietary calcium consumption and exercise can slow bone loss in older women, the amount required to have this effect in an older population remains uncertain. This study was devised to examine the effects of calcium consumption (CC) and physical activity (PA) (lifestyle management) on bone mass in an older female population.
Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, a population-based sample of older women (mean age, 75 ± 3 years) had hip and heel bone mass measured using DXA (Hologic 4500A; n = 1076) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Lunar Achilles; n = 1363), respectively. CC and PA were measured by a validated habitual food frequency and activity questionnaire, respectively. Dose-response effects of PA and CC on bone mass were examined using ANOVA.
Results and Conclusions: Division of the PA and CC into tertiles best described the dose-response effects. After adjustment for CC, age, weight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking, high PA compared with medium or low PA was associated with higher hip BMD and heel QUS (total hip BMD, 3.1%; p < 0.001; QUS stiffness, 2.7%; p = 0.002). After adjustment for PA and covariates, high or medium CC compared with low CC was associated with higher total hip BMD (1.8%; p = 0.027), with no effect at the QUS heel site. PA and CC were dichotomized at the cut-points for effects on BMD. The combination of high PA and CC, achieved by 24% of the population, was associated with a total hip BMD that was 5.1% higher (34% of SD) than those individuals in the low PA and CC group. Stiffness was 3.6% (23% of SD) higher in the high PA and CC group than in the low PA and CC group. If the whole population undertook and achieved a high PA and high CC lifestyle, the population risk of hip fractures may be expected to be reduced by about 17% in this age group as a result of beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system.