• 1
    Evans RM 1988 The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science 240: 889895.
  • 2
    Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW 1994 Molecular mechanisms of action of steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily members. Annu Rev Biochem 63: 451486.
  • 3
    Kushner PJ, Agard DA, Greene GL, Scanlan TS, Shiau AK, Uht RM, Webb P 2000 Estrogen receptor pathways to AP-1. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 74: 311317.
  • 4
    McKenna NJ, Xu J, Nawaz Z, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW 1999 Nuclear receptor co-activators: Multiple enzymes, multiple complexes, multiple functions. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 69: 312.
  • 5
    Kingston RE, Narlikar GJ 1999 ATP-dependent remodeling and acetylation in regulators of chromatin fluidity. Genes Dev 13: 23392352.
  • 6
    Xu J, O'Malley BW 2002 Molecular mechanisms and cellular biology of the steroid receptor co-activator (SRC) family in steroid receptor function. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 3: 185192.
  • 7
    Rachez C, Freedman LP 2001 Mediator complexes and transcription. Curr Opin Cell Biol 13: 274280.
  • 8
    Wolffe AP, Urnov FD, Guschin D 2000 Co-repressor complexes and remodeling chromatin for repression. Biochem Soc Trans 28: 379386.
  • 9
    Ishizuka T, Lazar MA 2003 The N-CoR/histone deacetylase 3 complex is required for repression by thyroid hormone receptor. Mol Cell Biol 23: 51225131.
  • 10
    Horlein AJ, Naar AM, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Gloss B, Kurokawa R, Ryan A, Kamei Y, Soderstrom M, Glass CK, Rosanfeld MG 1995 Ligand-independent repression by the thyroid hormone receptor mediated by a nuclear receptor co-repressor. Nature 377: 397404.
  • 11
    Hsieh JC, Sisk JM, Jurutka PW, Haussler CA, Slater SA, Haussler MR, Thompson CC 2003 Physical and functional interaction between the vitamin D receptor and hairless corepressor, two proteins required for hair cycling. J Biol Chem 278: 3866538674.
  • 12
    Apostolakis EM, Ramamurphy M, Zhou D, Onate S, O'Malley BW 2002 Acute disruption of select steroid receptor co-activators prevents reproductive behavior in rats and unmasks genetic adaptation in knockout mice. Mol Endocrinol 16: 15111523.
  • 13
    Shang Y, Hu X, DiRenzo J, Lazar MA, Brown M 2000 Co-factor dynamics and sufficiency in estrogen receptor-regulated transcription. Cell 103: 843852.
  • 14
    Shang Y, Myers M, Brown M 2002 Formation of the androgen receptor transcription complex. Mol Cell 9: 601610.
  • 15
    Wang Q, Sharma D, Ren Y, Fondell JD 2002 A co-regulatory role for the TRAP-mediator complex in androgen receptor-mediated gene expression. J Biol Chem 277: 4285242858.
  • 16
    Shang Y, Brown M 2002 Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science 295: 24652468.
  • 17
    Kang Z, Pirskanen A, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ 2002 Involvement of proteasome in the dynamic assembly of the androgen receptor transcription complex. J Biol Chem 277: 4836648371.
  • 18
    Reid G, Hubner MR, Metivier R, Brand H, Denger S, Manu D, Beaudouin J, Ellenberg J, Gannon F 2003 Cyclic, proteasome-mediated turnover of unliganded and liganded ERalpha on responsive promoters is an integral feature of estrogen signaling. Mol Cell 11: 695707.
  • 19
    Metivier R, Penot G, Hubner MR, Reid G, Brand H, Kos M, Gannon F 2003 Estrogen receptor-alpha directs ordered, cyclical, and combinatorial recruitment of co-factors on a natural target promoter. Cell 115: 751763.
  • 20
    Sutton AL, MacDonald PN 2003 Vitamin D: More than a “bone-a-fide” hormone. Mol Endocrinol 17: 7791.
  • 21
    Jones G, Strugnell SA, DeLuca HF 1998 Current understanding of the molecular actions of vitamin D. Physiol Rev 78: 11931231.
  • 22
    Bikle DD 1992 Vitamin D: New actions, new analogs, new therapeutic potential. Endocr Rev 13: 765788.
  • 23
    Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL 2003 Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 423: 337342.
  • 24
    Haussler MR, Whitfield GK, Haussler CA, Hsieh JC, Thompson PD, Selznick SH, Dominguez CE, Jurutka PW 1998 The nuclear vitamin D receptor: Biological and molecular regulatory properties revealed. J Bone Miner Res 13: 325349.
  • 25
    Clemens TL, Tang H, Maeda S, Kesterson RA, Demayo F, Pike JW, Gundberg CM 1997 Analysis of osteocalcin expression in transgenic mice reveals a species difference in vitamin D regulation of mouse and human osteocalcin genes. J Bone Miner Res 12: 15701576.
  • 26
    Jin CH, Kerner SA, Hong MH, Pike JW 1996 Transcriptional activation and dimerization functions in the human vitamin D receptor. Mol Endocrinol 10: 945957.
  • 27
    Shevde NK, Plum LA, Clagett-Dame M, Yamamoto H, Pike JW, DeLuca HF 2002 A potent analog of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 selectively induces bone formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 1348713491.
  • 28
    Yamamoto H, Shevde NK, Warrier AC, Plum LA, DeLuca HF, Pike JW 2003 2-methylene-19-NOR-(20S)-1,25-dihydroxyyvitamin D3 potently stimulates gene-specific DNA binding of the vitamin D receptor in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem 278: 3175631765.
  • 29
    Zierold C, Reinholz GG, Mings JA, Prahl JM, DeLuca HF 2000 Regulation of the porcine 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24) by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone in AOK-B50 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 381: 323327.
  • 30
    Denhardt DT, Noda M 1998 Osteopontin expression and function: Role in bone remodeling. J Cell Biochem Suppl 30–31: 92102.
  • 31
    Noda M, Vogel RL, Craig AM, Prahl J, DeLuca HF, Denhardt DT 1990 Identification of a DNA sequence responsible for binding of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhancement of mouse secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP-1 or osteopontin) gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 99959999.
  • 32
    Oyama Y, Ozono K, Uchida M, Yoshimura M, Shinki T, Suda T, Yamamoto O 1996 Functional assessment of two vitamin D-responsive elements in the rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase gene. J Biol Chem 271: 3038130385.
  • 33
    Sone T, Kerner S, Pike JW 1991 Vitamin D receptor interaction with specific DNA. Association as a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-modulated heterodimer. J Biol Chem 266: 2329623305.
  • 34
    Freedman LP 1999 Multimeric co-activator complexes for steroid/nuclear receptors. Trends Endocrinol Metab 10: 403407.
  • 35
    Sato S, Tomomori-Sato C, Banks CA, Sorokina I, Parmely TJ, Kong SE, Jin J, Cai Y, Lane WS, Brower CS, Conaway RC, Conaway JW 2003 Identification of mammalian mediator subunits with similarities to yeast mediator subunits Srb5, Srb6, Med11, and Rox3. J Biol Chem 278: 1512315127.
  • 36
    McDonnell DP, Connor CE, Wijayaratne A, Chang CY, Norris JD 2002 Definition of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the tissue-selective agonist/antagonist activities of selective estrogen receptor modulators. Recent Prog Horm Res 57: 295316.
  • 37
    Shiau AK, Barstad D, Loria PM, Cheng L, Kushner PJ, Agard DA, Greene GL 1998 The structural basis of estrogen receptor/co-activator recognition and the antagonism of this interaction by tamoxifen. Cell 95: 927937.
  • 38
    Toell A, Gonzalez MM, Ruf D, Steinmeyer A, Ishizuka S, Carlberg C 2001 Different molecular mechanisms of vitamin D3 receptor antagonists. Mol Pharmacol 59: 14781485.
  • 39
    Pike JW 1997 The vitamin D receptor and its gene. In: FeldmanD, GlorieuxF, PikeJW (eds.) Vitamin D. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 105125.
  • 40
    Zhang C, Dowd DR, Staal A, Gu C, Lian JB, Van Wijnen AJ, Stein GS, MacDonald PN 2003 NCoA62/SKIP is a nuclear matrix-associated co-activator that may couple vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and RNA splicing. J Biol Chem 278: 3532535336.
  • 41
    Szak ST, Mays D, Pietenpol JA 2001 Kinetics of p53 binding to promoter sites in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 21: 33753386.
  • 42
    Saccani S, Pantano S, Natoli G 2001 Two waves of nuclear factor kappaB recruitment to target promoters. J Exp Med 193: 13511359.
  • 43
    McDonnell DP, Mangelsdorf DJ, Pike JW, Haussler MR, O'Malley BW 1987 Molecular cloning of complementary DNA encoding the avian receptor for vitamin D. Science 235: 12141217.
  • 44
    Santi-so-Mere D, Sone T, Hilliard GM IV, Pike JW, McDonnell DP 1993 Positive regulation of the vitamin D receptor by its cognate ligand in heterologous expression systems. Mol Endocrinol 7: 833839.
  • 45
    Dwivedi PP, Omdahl JL, Kola I, Hume DA, May BK 2000 Regulation of rat cytochrome P450C24 (CYP24) gene expression. Evidence for functional cooperation of Ras-activated Ets transcription factors with the vitamin D receptor in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated induction. J Biol Chem 275: 4755.
  • 46
    Nagaich AK, Walker DA, Wolford R, Hager GL 2004 Rapid periodic binding and displacement of the glucocorticoid receptor during chromatin remodeling. Mol Cell 14: 163174.
  • 47
    Hager GL, Nagaich AK, Johnson TA, Walker DA, John S 2004 Dynamics of nuclear receptor movement and transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta 1677: 4651.
  • 48
    Becker M, Baumann C, John S, Walker DA, Vigneron M, McNally JG, Hager GL 2002 Dynamic behavior of transcription factors on a natural promoter in living cells. EMBO Rep 3: 11881194.
  • 49
    Stenoien DL, Nye AC, Mancini MG, Patel K, Dutertre M, O'Malley BW, Smith CL, Belmont AS, Mancini MA 2001 Ligand-mediated assembly and real-time cellular dynamics of estrogen receptor alpha-co-activator complexes in living cells. Mol Cell Biol 21: 44044412.
  • 50
    Gamble MJ, Freedman LP 2002 A co-activator code for transcription. Trends Biochem Sci 27: 165167.
  • 51
    Orphanides G, Reinberg D 2002 A unified theory of gene expression. Cell 108: 439451.
  • 52
    Lemon BD, Freedman LP 1999 Nuclear receptor co-factors as chromatin remodelers. Curr Opin Genet Dev 9: 499504.
  • 53
    Perissi V, Aggarwal A, Glass CK, Rose DW, Rosenfeld MG 2004 A corepressor/co-activator exchange complex required for transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors and other regulated transcription factors. Cell 116: 511526.
  • 54
    Herdick M, Steinmeyer A, Carlberg C 2000 Carboxylic ester antagonists of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 show cell-specific actions. Chem Biol 7: 885894.