• 1
    van't Hof RJ, Ralston SH 2001 Nitric oxide and bone. Immunology 103: 255261.
  • 2
    Damoulis PD, Hauschka PV 1997 Nitric oxide acts in conjunction with proinflammatory cytokines to promote cell death in osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res 12: 412422.
  • 3
    Wimalawansa SJ 2000 Nitroglycerin therapy is as efficacious as standard estrogen replacement therapy (Premarin) in prevention of oophorectomy-induced bone loss: A human pilot clinical study. J Bone Miner Res 15: 22402244.
  • 4
    Helfrich MH, Evans DE, Grabowski PS, Pollock JS, Ohshima H, Ralston SH 1997 Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in bone and bone cell cultures. J Bone Miner Res 12: 11081115.
  • 5
    Fox SW, Chow JW 1998 Nitric oxide synthase expression in bone cells. Bone 23: 16.
  • 6
    Brandi ML, Hukkanen M, Umeda T, Moradi-Bidhendi N, Bianchi S, Gross SS, Polak JM, MacIntyre I 1995 Bidirectional regulation of osteoclast function by nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 29542958.
  • 7
    Hukkanen M, Platts LA, Lawes T, Girgis SI, Konttinen YT, Goodship AE, MacIntyre I, Polak JM 2003 Effect of nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on bone mineral density in a rat model of estrogen deficiency-induced osteopenia. Bone 32: 142149.
  • 8
    Wimalawansa SJ 2000 Restoration of ovariectomy-induced osteopenia by nitroglycerin. Calcif Tissue Int 66: 5660.
  • 9
    Wimalawansa S, Chapa T, Fang L, Yallampalli C, Simmons D 2000 Frequency-dependent effect of nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on bone. J Bone Miner Res 15: 11191125.
  • 10
    Wimalawansa SJ, De Marco G, Gangula P, Yallampalli C 1996 Nitric oxide donor alleviates ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Bone 18: 301304.
  • 11
    Wimalawansa SJ, Chapa MT, Yallampalli C, Zhang R, Simmons DJ 1997 Prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss with nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin in male rats. Bone 21: 275280.
  • 12
    Parker JO 1993 Nitrates and angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 72: 3C6C.
  • 13
    Thomsen LL, Olesen J 2001 Nitric oxide in primary headaches. Curr Opin Neurol 14: 315321.
  • 14
    Buchman AL, O'Brien W, Ou CN, Rognerud C, Alvarez M, Dennis K, Ahn C 1999 The effect of arginine or glycine supplementation on gastrointestinal function, muscle injury, serum amino acid concentrations and performance during a marathon run. Int J Sports Med 20: 315321.
  • 15
    Hurson M, Regan M, Kirk S, Wasserkrug H, Barbul A 1995 Metabolic effects of arginine in a healthy elderly population. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 19: 227230.
  • 16
    Kirk SJ, Hurson M, Regan MC, Holt DR, Wasserkrug HL, Barbul A 1993 Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery 114: 155159.
  • 17
    Luiking YC, Weusten BL, Portincasa P, Van der Meer R, Smout AJ, Akkermans LM 1998 Effects of long-term oral L-arginine on esophageal motility and gallbladder dynamics in healthy humans. Am J Physiol 274: G984G991.
  • 18
    Jablecka A, Checinski P, Krauss H, Micker M, Ast J 2004 The influence of two different doses of L-arginine oral supplementation on nitric oxide (NO) concentration and total antioxidant status (TAS) in atherosclerotic patients. Med Sci Monit 10: CR29CR32.
  • 19
    Boonen S, Lesaffre E, Dequeker J, Aerssens J, Nijs J, Pelemans W, Bouillon R 1996 Relationship between baseline insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and femoral bone density in women aged over 70 years: Potential implications for the prevention of age-related bone loss. J Am Geriatr Soc 44: 13011306.
  • 20
    Langlois JA, Rosen CJ, Visser M, Hannan MT, Harris T, Wilson PW, Kiel DP 1998 Association between insulin-like growth factor I and bone mineral density in older women and men: The Framingham Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 42574262.
  • 21
    Rosen CJ, Pollak M 1999 Circulating IGF-I: New perspectives for a new century. Trends Endocrinol Metab 10: 136141.
  • 22
    Sugimoto T, Nakaoka D, Nasu M, Kanzawa M, Sugishita T, Chihara K 1999 Effect of recombinant human growth hormone in elderly osteoporotic women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 51: 715724.
  • 23
    Marcus R 1997 Skeletal effects of growth hormone and IGF-I in adults. Horm Res 48 (Suppl 5): 6064.
  • 24
    Ravn P, Overgaard K, Spencer EM, Christiansen C 1995 Insulin-like growth factors I and II in healthy women with and without established osteoporosis. Eur J Endocrinol 132: 313319.
  • 25
    Bode-Boger SM, Boger RH, Alfke H, Heinzel D, Tsikas D, Creutzig A, Alexander K, Frolich JC 1996 L-arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia. A randomized, controlled study. Circulation 93: 8590.
  • 26
    Wheeler MA, Smith SD, Saito N, Foster HE Jr, Weiss RM 1997 Effect of long-term oral L-arginine on the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the urine from patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol 158: 20452050.
  • 27
    Visek WJ 1986 Arginine needs, physiological state and usual diets. A reevaluation. J Nutr 116: 3646.
  • 28
    Frost HM 2003 Bone's mechanostat: A 2003 update. Anat Rec 275A: 10811101.
  • 29
    Turner CH, Takano Y, Owan I, Murrell GA 1996 Nitric oxide inhibitor L-NAME suppresses mechanically induced bone formation in rats. Am J Physiol 270: E634E639.
  • 30
    Winkler A 1995 Kurzmethoden zur Charakterisierung des Ernährungsmusters: Einsatz und Auswertung eines Food-Frequency-Fragebogens. Ernährungs-Umschau 42: 289291.
  • 31
    Erhardt J 1999 EBIS Pro für Windows 95/98 und NT. Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
  • 32
    Neu CM, Manz F, Rauch F, Merkel A, Schoenau E 2001 Bone densities and bone size at the distal radius in healthy children and adolescents: A study using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone 28: 227232.
  • 33
    Russo CR, Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Di Iorio A, Volpato S, Guralnik JM, Harris T, Ferrucci L 2003 Aging bone in men and women: Beyond changes in bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 14: 531538.
  • 34
    Rittweger J, Beller G, Ehrig J, Jung C, Koch U, Ramolla J, Schmidt F, Newitt D, Majumdar S, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D 2000 Bone-muscle strength indices for the human lower leg. Bone 27: 319326.
  • 35
    Blum A, Cannon RO III, Costello R, Schenke WH, Csako G 2000 Endocrine and lipid effects of oral L-arginine treatment in healthy postmenopausal women. J Lab Clin Med 135: 231237.
  • 36
    Gatti D, Rossini M, Zamberlan N, Braga V, Fracassi E, Adami S 1996 Effect of aging on trabecular and compact bone components of proximal and ultradistal radius. Osteoporos Int 6: 355360.
  • 37
    Bjarnason NH, Christiansen C 2000 Early response in biochemical markers predicts long-term response in bone mass during hormone replacement therapy in early postmenopausal women. Bone 26: 561569.
  • 38
    Delmas PD 2000 Markers of bone turnover for monitoring treatment of osteoporosis with antiresorptive drugs. Osteoporos Int 11 (Suppl 6): S66S76.
  • 39
    Koppeschaar HP, ten Horn CD, Thijssen JH, Page MD, Dieguez C, Scanlon MF 1992 Differential effects of arginine on growth hormone releasing hormone and insulin induced growth hormone secretion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 36: 487490.
  • 40
    Ebeling PR, Jones JD, O'Fallon WM, Janes CH, Riggs BL 1993 Short-term effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I on bone turnover in normal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77: 13841387.
  • 41
    Eyre DR 1997 Bone biomarkers as tools in osteoporosis management. Spine 22: 17S24S.
  • 42
    Gundberg CM 2000 Biochemical markers of bone formation. Clin Lab Med 20: 489501.
  • 43
    Baecker N, Tomic A, Mika C, Gotzmann A, Platen P, Gerzer R, Heer M 2003 Bone resorption is induced on the second day of bedrest: Results of a controlled crossover trial. J Appl Physiol 95: 977982.
  • 44
    Chesnut CH III, Bell NH, Clark GS, Drinkwater BL, English SC, Johnson CC Jr, Notelovitz M, Rosen C, Cain DF, Flessland KA, Mallinak NJ 1997 Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: Urinary N- telopeptide of type I collagen monitors therapeutic effect and predicts response of bone mineral density. Am J Med 102: 2937.
  • 45
    Garnero P, Shih WJ, Gineyts E, Karpf DB, Delmas PD 1994 Comparison of new biochemical markers of bone turnover in late postmenopausal osteoporotic women in response to alendronate treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79: 16931700.
  • 46
    Jamal SA, Browner WS, Bauer DC, Cummings SR 1998 Intermittent use of nitrates increases bone mineral density: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 13: 17551759.
  • 47
    Vontulamen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Vuori L 2003 Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humorus and radius of female racquet-sports players: A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res 6: 173177.
  • 48
    Neu CM, Rauch F, Manz F, Schoenau E 2001 Modeling of cross-sectional bone size, mass and geometry at the proximal radius: A study of normal bone development using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Osteoporos Int 12: 538547.
  • 49
    Tothill P, Pye DW 1992 Errors due to non-uniform distribution of fat in dual X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine. Br J Radiol 65: 807813.
  • 50
    Bouxsein M, Parker RA, Greenspan SL 2004 Forearm bone mineral densitometry cannot be used to monitor improvements in hip and spine bone density after 2.5 years of alendronate therapy. J Bone Miner Res 23: S312.
  • 51
    Eastell R 1998 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 338: 736746.
  • 52
    Hosking DJ, Ross PD, Thompson DE, Wasnich RD, McClung M, Bjarnason NH, Ravn P, Cizza G, Daley M, Yates AJ 1998 Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss. Clin Ther 20: 933944.
  • 53
    Schneider PF, Fischer M, Allolio B, Felsenberg D, Schroder U, Semler J, Ittner JR 1999 Alendronate increases bone density and bone strength at the distal radius in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14: 13871393.
  • 54
    Bode-Boger SM, Boger RH, Galland A, Tsikas D, Frolich JC 1998 L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol 46: 489497.
  • 55
    Kurz S, Harrison DG 1997 Insulin and the arginine paradox. J Clin Invest 99: 369370.
  • 56
    Castillo L, deRojas TC, Chapman TE, Vogt J, Burke JF, Tannenbaum SR, Young VR 1993 Splanchnic metabolism of dietary arginine in relation to nitric oxide synthesis in normal adult man. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 193197.
  • 57
    Rhodes P, Leone AM, Francis PL, Struthers AD, Moncada S, Rhodes PM 1995 The L-arginine: nitric oxide pathway is the major source of plasma nitrite in fasted humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 209: 590596.
  • 58
    Barbul A 1986 Arginine: Biochemistry, physiology, and therapeutic implications. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 10: 227238.
  • 59
    Chevalley T, Rizzoli R, Manen D, Caverzasio J, Bonjour JP 1998 Arginine increases insulin-like growth factor-I production and collagen synthesis in osteoblast-like cells. Bone 23: 103109.
  • 60
    Clementi G, Fiore CE, Mangano NG, Cutuli VM, Pennisi P, Caruso A, Prato A, Matera M, Amico-Roxas M 2001 Role of soy diet and L-arginine in cyclosporin-A-induced osteopenia in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol 88: 1619.
  • 61
    Fiore CE, Pennisi P, Cutuli VM, Prato A, Messina R, Clementi G 2000 L-arginine prevents bone loss and bone collagen breakdown in cyclosporin A-treated rats. Eur J Pharmacol 408: 323326.