• 1
    Mundlos S 2000 Skeletal morphogenesis. Methods Mol Biol 136: 6170.
  • 2
    Taichman RS, Emerson SG 1998 The role of osteoblasts in the hematopoietic microenvironment. Stem Cells 16: 715.
  • 3
    Manolagas SC 2000 Birth and death of bone cells: Basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 21: 115137.
  • 4
    Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Bellido T, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC 1998 Osteoblast programmed cell death (apoptosis): Modulation by growth factors and cytokines. J Bone Miner Res 13: 793802.
  • 5
    Swarthout JT, D'Alonzo RC, Selvamurugan N, Partridge NC 2002 Parathyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways regulating genes in bone cells. Gene 282: 117.
  • 6
    Swarthout JT, Doggett TA, Lemker JL, Partridge NC 2001 Stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and proliferation in rat osteoblastic cells by parathyroid hormone is protein kinase C-dependent. J Biol Chem 276: 75867592.
  • 7
    Beier F, Lu Valle P 2002 The cyclin D1 and cyclin A genes are targets of activated PTH/PTHrP receptors in Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Mol Endocrinol 16: 21632173.
  • 8
    Onyia JE, Miller B, Hulman J, Liang J, Galvin R, Frolik C, Chandrasekhar S, Harvey AK, Bidwell J, Herring J, Hock JM 1997 Proliferating cells in the primary spongiosa express osteoblastic phenotype in vitro. Bone 20: 93100.
  • 9
    Amizuka N, Warshawsky H, Henderson JE, Goltzman D, Karaplis AC 1994 Parathyroid hormone-related peptide-depleted mice show abnormal epiphyseal cartilage development and altered endochondral bone formation. J Cell Biol 126: 16111623.
  • 10
    Chen H, Demiralp B, Schneider A, Koh AJ, Silve C, Wang CY, McCauley LK 2002 Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone related protein exert both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects in mesenchymal cells. J Biol Chem 277: 1937419381.
  • 11
    Sunters A, McCluskey J, Grigoriadis AE 1998 Control of cell cycle gene expression in bone development and during c-Fos-induced osteosarcoma formation. Dev Genet 22: 386397.
  • 12
    Smith E, Frenkel B, Schlegel R, Giordano A, Lian J, Stein JL, Stein GS 1995 Expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in differentiating osteoblasts: Postproliferative up-regulation of cyclins B and E. Cancer Res 55: 50195024.
  • 13
    Smith E, Redman RA, Logg CR, Coetzee GA, Kasahara N, Frenkel B 2000 Glucocorticoids inhibit developmental stage-specific osteoblast cell cycle. Dissociation of cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 from E2F4-p130 complexes. J Biol Chem 275: 1999220001.
  • 14
    Drissi H, Hushka D, Aslam F, Nguyen Q, Buffone E, Koff A, van Wijnen A, Lian JB, Stein JL, Stein GS 1999 The cell cycle regulator p27kip1 contributes to growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. Cancer Res 59: 37053711.
  • 15
    Onishi T, Hruska K 1997 Expression of p27Kip1 in osteoblast-like cells during differentiation with parathyroid hormone. Endocrinology 138: 19952004.
  • 16
    Onishi T, Zhang C, Cao X, Hruska K 1997 The mitogenic effect of parathyroid hormone is associated with E2F-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdc2) in osteoblast precursors. J Bone Miner Res 12: 15961605.
  • 17
    Beck GR Jr, Zerler B, Moran E 2001 Gene array analysis of osteoblast differentiation. Cell Growth Differ 12: 6183.
  • 18
    Pines J 1994 Protein kinases and cell cycle control. Semin Cell Biol 5: 399408.
  • 19
    Sherr CJ 1994 G1 phase progression: Cycling on cue. Cell 79: 551555.
  • 20
    Xiong Y, Zhang H, Beach D 1992 D type cyclins associate with multiple protein kinases and the DNA replication and repair factor PCNA. Cell 71: 505514.
  • 21
    Hirama T, Koeffler HP 1995 Role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the development of cancer. Blood 86: 841854.
  • 22
    Shaulian E, Karin M 2002 AP-1 as a regulator of cell life and death. Nat Cell Biol 4: E131E136.
  • 23
    Kovary K, Bravo R 1991 The jun and fos protein families are both required for cell cycle progression in fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol 11: 44664472.
  • 24
    Wagner EF 2002 Functions of AP1 (Fos/Jun) in bone development. Ann Rheum Dis 61: 4042.
  • 25
    Fantl V, Stamp G, Andrews A, Rosewell I, Dickson C 1995 Mice lacking cyclin D1 are small and show defects in eye and mammary gland development. Genes Dev 9: 23642372.
  • 26
    Sicinski P, Donaher JL, Parker SB, Li T, Fazeli A, Gardner H, Haslam SZ, Bronson RT, Elledge SJ, Weinberg RA 1995 Cyclin D1 provides a link between development and oncogenesis in the retina and breast. Cell 82: 621630.
  • 27
    Long F, Schipani E, Asahara H, Kronenberg H, Montminy M 2001 The CREB family of activators is required for endochondral bone development. Development 128: 541550.
  • 28
    Sherr CJ 2001 Parsing Ink4a/Arf: “pure” p16-null mice. Cell 106: 531534.
  • 29
    Karsenty G, Wagner EF 2002 Reaching a genetic and molecular understanding of skeletal development. Dev Cell 2: 389406.
  • 30
    Bakiri L, Lallemand D, Bossy-Wetzel E, Yaniv M 2000 Cell cycle-dependent variations in c-Jun and JunB phosphorylation: A role in the control of cyclin D1 expression. EMBO J 19: 20562068.
  • 31
    Passegue E, Wagner EF 2000 JunB suppresses cell proliferation by transcriptional activation of p16(INK4a) expression. EMBO J 19: 29692979.
  • 32
    Koh AJ, Beecher CA, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK 1999 Cyclic AMP activation in osteoblastic cells: Effects on PTH-1 receptors and osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Endocrinology 140: 31543162.
  • 33
    Datta NS, Williams JL, Caldwell J, Curry AM, Ashcraft EK, Long MW 1996 Novel alterations in CDK1/cyclin B1 kinase complex formation occur during the acquisition of a polyploid DNA content. Mol Biol Cell 7: 209223.
  • 34
    Datta NS, Willams JL, Long MW 1998 Differential modulation of G1-S-phase cyclin-dependent kinase2/cyclin complexes occurs during the acquisition of a polyploid DNA content. Cell Growth Differ 9: 639650.
  • 35
    Chen C, Koh AJ, Datta NS, Zhang J, Keller ET, Xiao G, Franceschi RT, D'Silva N, McCauley LK 2004 Impact of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway on parathyroid hormone-related protein actions in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem 279: 2912129129.
  • 36
    McCabe LR, Kockz M, Lian J, Stein J, Stein G 1995 Selective expression of fos-and jun-related genes during osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Exp Cell Res 218: 255262.
  • 37
    Dulic V, Lees E, Reed SI 1992 Association of human cyclin E with a periodic G1-S phase protein kinase. Science 257: 19581961.
  • 38
    Koff A, Giordano A, Desai D, Yamashita K, Harper JW, Elledge S, Nishimoto T, Morgan DO, Franza BR, Roberts JM 1992 Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle. Science 257: 16891694.
  • 39
    Pagano M, Pepperkok R, Verde F, Ansorge W, Draetta G 1992 Cyclin A is required at two points in the human cell cycle. EMBO J 11: 961971.
  • 40
    Pines J, Hunter T 1989 Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: Evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2. Cell 58: 833846.
  • 41
    Quelle DE, Zindy F, Ashmun RA, Sherr CJ 1995 Alternative reading frames of the INK4a tumor suppressor gene encode two unrelated proteins capable of inducing cell cycle arrest. Cell 83: 9931000.
  • 42
    Abou-Samra AB, Jüppner H, Force T, Freeman MW, Kong XF, Schipani E, Urena P, Richards J, Bonventre JV, Potts JT, Kronenberg HM, Segre GV 1992 Expression cloning of a common receptor for parathyroid hormone and parathryoid hormone-related peptide from rat osteoblast-like cells: A single receptor stimulates intracellular accumulation of both cAMP and inositol trisphosphate and increases intracellular free calcium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 27322736.
  • 43
    Nishida S, Yamaguchi A, Tanizawa T, Endo N, Mashiba T, Uchiyama Y, Suda T, Yoshiki S, Takahashi HE 1994 Increased bone formation by intermittent parathyroid hormone administration is due to the stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells in bone marrow. Bone 15: 717723.
  • 44
    Qin L, Raggatt LJ, Partridge N 2004 Parathyroid hormone: A double-edged sword for bone metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 15: 6065.
  • 45
    Balmanno K, Cook SJ 1999 Sustained MAP kinase activation is required for the expression of cyclin D1, p21Cip1 and a subset of AP-1 proteins in CCL39 cells. Oncogene 18: 30853097.
  • 46
    Hirama T, Koeffler HP 1995 Role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the development of cancer. Blood 86: 841854.
  • 47
    Cheng M, Olivier P, Diehl JA, Fero M, Roussel MF, Roberts JM, Sherr CJ 1999 The p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) CDK ‘inhibitors’ are essential activators of cyclin D-dependent kinases in murine fibroblasts. EMBO J 18: 15711583.
  • 48
    LaBaer J, Garrett MD, Stevenson LF, Slingerland JM, Sandhu C, Chou HS, Fattaey A, Harlow E 1997 New functional activities for the p21 family of CDK inhibitors. Genes Dev 11: 847862.
  • 49
    Blain SW, Montalvo E, Massague J 1997 Differential interaction of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27Kip1 with cyclin A-Cdk2 and cyclin D2-Cdk4. J Biol Chem 272: 2586325872.
  • 50
    Kato JY, Matsuoka M, Polyak K, Massague J, Sherr CJ 1994 Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Cell 79: 487496.
  • 51
    Koff A, Ohtsuki M, Polyak K, Roberts JM, Massague J 1993 Negative regulation of G1 in mammalian cells: Inhibition of cyclin E-dependent kinase by TGF-beta. Science 260: 536539.
  • 52
    Partridge NC, Bloch SR, Pearman AT 1994 Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression. J Cell Biochem 55: 321327.
  • 53
    Dunlay R, Hruska K 1990 PTH receptor coupling to phospholipase C is an alternate pathway of signal transduction in bone and kidney. Am J Physiol 258: F223F231.
  • 54
    Xiao G, Jiang D, Gopalakrishnan R, Franceschi RT 2002 Fibroblast growth factor 2 induction of the osteocalcin gene requires MAPK activity and phosphorylation of the osteoblast transcription factor, Cbfa1/Runx2. J Biol Chem 277: 3618136187.
  • 55
    Houslay MD, Kolch W 2000 Cell-type specific integration of cross-talk between extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP signaling. Mol Pharmacol 58: 659668.
  • 56
    Kawane T, Mimura J, Yanagawa T, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Horiuchi N 2003 Parathyroid hormone (PTH) down-regulates PTH/PTH-related protein receptor gene expression in UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells via a 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, protein kinase A-independent pathway. J Endocrinol 178: 247256.
  • 57
    Weber JD, Raben DM, Phillips PJ, Baldassare JJ 1997 Sustained activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) is required for the continued expression of cyclin D1 in G1 phase. Biochem J 326: 6168.
  • 58
    Ariga M, Nedachi T, Akahori M, Sakamoto H, Ito Y, Hakuno F, Takahashi S 2000 Signalling pathways of insulin-like growth factor-I that are augmented by cAMP in FRTL-5 cells. Biochem J 348: t16.
  • 59
    Williamson EA, Burgess GS, Eder P, Litz-Jackson S, Boswell HS 1997 Cyclic AMP negatively controls c-myc transcription and G1 cell cycle progression in p210 BCR-ABL transformed cells: Inhibitory activity exerted through cyclin D1 and cdk4. Leukemia 11: 7385.
  • 60
    Newton AC 1995 Protein kinase C: Structure, function, and regulation. J Biol Chem 270: 2849528498.
  • 61
    Livneh E, Fishman DD 1997 Linking protein kinase C to cell-cycle control. Eur J Biochem 248: 19.
  • 62
    Saxon ML, Zhao X, Black JD 1994 Activation of protein kinase C isozymes is associated with post-mitotic events in intestinal epithelial cells in situ. J Cell Biol 126: 747763.
  • 63
    Kwon TK, Baek SH, Kim JH, Lee SJ, Park YK, Park JW, Kwun KB, Buchholz MA, Nordin AA 2000 Cdk7- and Cdc25A-independent dephosphorylation of Cdk2 during phorbol ester-mediated cell cycle arrest in U937 cells. Exp Cell Res 257: 145151.
  • 64
    Andrecht S, Kolbus A, Hartenstein B, Angel P, Schorpp-Kistner M 2002 Cell cycle promoting activity of JunB through cyclin A activation. J Biol Chem 277: 3596135968.
  • 65
    Ionescu AM, Schwarz EM, Vinson C, Puzas JE, Rosier R, Reynolds PR, O'Keefe RJ 2001 PTHrP modulates chondrocyte differentiation through AP-1 and CREB signaling. J Biol Chem 276: 1163911647.
  • 66
    McCauley LK, Koh-Paige AJ, Chen H, Chen C, Ontiveros C, Irwin R, McCabe LR 2001 Parathyroid hormone stimulates fra-2 expression in osteoblastic cells in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 142: 19751981.
  • 67
    Beier F, Ali Z, Mok D, Taylor A, Leask T, Albanese C, Pestelle RG, Lu Valle P 2001 TGFβ and PTHrP control chondrocyte proliferation by activating cyclin D1 expression. Mol Biol Cell 12: 38523863.
  • 68
    Chiu R, Boyle WJ, Meek J, Smeal T, Hunter T, Karin M 1988 The c-Fos protein interacts with c-Jun/AP-1 to stimulate transcription of AP-1 responsive genes. Cell 54: 541552.
  • 69
    Kenner L, Hoebertz A, Beil T, Keon N, Karreth F, Eferl R, Scheuch H, Szremska A, Amling M, Schorpp-Kistner M, Angel P, Wagner EF 2004 Mice lacking JunB are osteopenic due to cell autonomous osteoblast and osteoclast defects. J Cell Biol 164: 613623.
  • 70
    Bourbon NA, Sandirasegarane L, Kester M 2002 Ceramide-induced inhibition of Akt is mediated through protein kinase Czeta: Implications for growth arrest. J Biol Chem 277: 32863292.
  • 71
    Diehl JA, Cheng M, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ 1998 Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization. Genes Dev 12: 34993511.
  • 72
    Calvi LM, Sims NA, Hunzelman JL, Knight MC, Giovannetti A, Saxton JM, Kronenberg HM, Baron R, Schipani E 2001 Activated parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor in osteoblastic cells differentially affects cortical and trabecular bone. J Clin Invest 107: 277286.