• 1
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Rubin SM 1989 Lifetime risks of hip, Colles', or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 149: 24452448.
  • 2
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox K, Ensrud K, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM 1995 Risk factors for hip fractures in white women. N Engl J Med 332: 767773.
  • 3
    Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly P, Jones G, Lord S, Freund J, Eisman J 1993 Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density. BMJ 307: 11111115.
  • 4
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Seeman E, Offord KP, Dunn WL, Mazess RB, Johnson KA, Melton LJ 1992 Changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur and spine with aging: Differences between the postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis syndromes. J Clin Invest 70: 716723.
  • 5
    Jones G, Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1994 Progressive femoral neck bone loss in the elderly: Longitudinal findings from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. BMJ 309: 691695.
  • 6
    Ensrud KE, Palermo L, Black DM, Cauley JA, Jergas M, Orwoll ES, Nevitt MC, Fox KM, Cummings SR 1995 Hip and calcaneous bone loss increase with advancing age: Longitudinal results from the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture. J Bone Miner Res 10: 17781787.
  • 7
    Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1998 Physical activity, weight change, bone loss and fracture in elderly women: The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. J Bone Miner Res 13: 14581467.
  • 8
    Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD 1999 Markers of bone turnover predict postmenopausal forearm bone loss over 4 years: The OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res 14: 16141621.
  • 9
    Bauer DC, Sklarin PM, Stone KL, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Ensrud KE, Arnaud CD, Genant HK, Garnero P, Delmas PD, Lawaetz H, Cummings SR 1999 Biochemical markers of bone turnover and prediction of hip bone loss in older women: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14: 14041410.
  • 10
    Dresner-Pollak R, Parker RA, Poku M, Thompson J, Seibel MJ, Greenspan SL 1996 Biochemical markers of bone turnover reflect femoral bone loss in elderly women. Calcif Tissue Int 59: 328333.
  • 11
    Keen RW, Nguyen T, Sobnack R, Perry LA, Thompson PW, Spector TD 1996 Can biochemical markers predict bone loss at the hip and spine?: A 4-year prospective study of 141 early postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 6: 399406.
  • 12
    Looker AC, Bauer DC, Chesnut CH III, Gundberg CM, Hochberg MC, Klee G, Kleerekoper M, Watts NB, Bell NH 2000 Clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling: Current status and future directions. Osteoporos Int 11: 467480.
  • 13
    Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Claustrat B, Delmas PD 2000 Biochemical markers of bone turnover, endogenous hormones and the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women: The OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res 15: 15261536.
  • 14
    Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy MC, Marcelli C, Grandjean H, Muller C, Cormier C, Breart G, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1996 Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res 11: 15311538.
  • 15
    Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1996 Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture: A three year follow-up study. Bone 18: 487488.
  • 16
    Riis BJ, Hansen MA, Jensen AM, Overgaard K, Christiansen C 1996 Low bone mass and fast rate of bone loss at menopause: Equal risk factors for future fracture: A 15-year follow-up study. Bone 19: 912.
  • 17
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook PN, Kelly PJ, Gilbert C, Eisman JA 1994 Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women: The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Osteoporos Int 4: 277282.
  • 18
    Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN, Gilbert C, Pocock NA, Eisman JA 1994 Life-style factors and bone density in the elderly: Implications for osteoporosis prevention. J Bone Miner Res 9: 13391346.
  • 19
    Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1997 Source of variability in bone density: Implication for study design and analysis. J Bone Miner Res 12: 124135.
  • 20
    Cox DR 1972 Regression models and life-tables (with discussion). J Roy Statist Soc Series B 34: 187220.
  • 21
    Lee ET 1980 Statistical Models for Survival Data Analysis. Lifetime Learning Publications, Belmont, CA, USA.
  • 22
    SAS Institute 1992 SAS Technical Report P-229, SAS/STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements, Release 6.07. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  • 23
    Eide GE, Gefeller O 1995 Sequential and average attributable fractions as aids in the selection of preventive strategies. J Clin Epidemiol 48: 645655.
  • 24
    Gefeller O, Land M, Eide GE 1998 Averaging attributable fractions in the multifactorial situation: Assumptions and interpretation. J Clin Epidemiol 5: 437441.
  • 25
    Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ, Black DM 2002 Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med 112: 281289.
  • 26
    Chesnut CH, Rosen CJ for the Bone Quality Discussion Group 2002 Reconsidering the effects of antiresorptive therapies in reducing osteoporotic fracture. J Bone Miner Res 16: 21632172.
  • 27
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 312: 12541259.
  • 28
    Christiansen C, Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ 1993 Prediction of future fracture risk. In ChristiansenC, RiisBJ (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Osteoporosis and Consensus Development Conference Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 5254.
  • 29
    Hansen M, Overgaard K, Riis B, Christiansen C 1991 Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. BMJ 303: 961964.
  • 30
    Heaney RP 1989 Osteoporotic fracture space: A hypothesis. Bone Miner 6: 113.
  • 31
    Akesson K, Ljunghall S, Jonsson B, Sernbo I, Johnell O, Gardsell P, Obrant KJ 1995 Assessment of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in relation to the occurrence of fracture: A retrospective and prospective population-based study of women. J Bone Miner Res 10: 18231829.
  • 32
    Center JR, Nguyen TV, Schneider D, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1999 Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: An observational study. Lancet 353: 878882.