SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Sembo I, Redlund-Johnell I, Dawson A, De Laet C, Jonsson B 2000 Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in Malmo. Osteoporos Int 11: 669674.
  • 2
    Albrand G, Munoz F, Sornay-Rendu E, DuBoeuf F, Delmas PD 2003 Independent predictors of all osteoporosis-related fractures in healthy postmenopausal women: The OFELY study. Bone 32: 7885.
  • 3
    Faulkner KG, Cummings SR, Black D, Palermo L, Gluer CC, Genant HK 1993 Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 8: 12111217.
  • 4
    Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC Jr 1990 The contribution of bone loss to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1: 3034.
  • 5
    Kelly PJ, Morrison NA, Sambrook PN, Nguyen TV, Eisman JA 1995 Genetic influences on bone turnover, bone density and fracture. Eur J Endocrinol 133: 265271.
  • 6
    Orwoll ES 2003 Men, bone and estrogen: Unresolved issues. Osteoporos Int 14: 9398.
  • 7
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ III 1998 A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: Estrogen deficiency causes both type I and type II osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bone Miner Res 13: 763773.
  • 8
    Vanderschueren D, Vandenput L, Boonen S, Lindberg MK, Bouillon R, Ohlsson C 2004 Androgens and bone. Endocr Rev 25: 389425.
  • 9
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ III 2002 Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocr Rev 23: 279302.
  • 10
    Nilsson LO, Boman A, Savendahl L, Grigelioniene G, Ohlsson C, Ritzen EM, Wroblewski J 1999 Demonstration of estrogen receptor-beta immunoreactivity in human growth plate cartilage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 370373.
  • 11
    Arts J, Kuiper GG, Janssen JM, Gustafsson JA, Lowik CW, Pols HA, van Leeuwen JP 1997 Differential expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta mRNA during differentiation of human osteoblast SV-HFO cells. Endocrinology 138: 50675070.
  • 12
    Onoe Y, Miyaura C, Ohta H, Nozawa S, Suda T 1997 Expression of estrogen receptor beta in rat bone. Endocrinology 138: 45094512.
  • 13
    Vidal O, Kindblom LG, Ohlsson C 1999 Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-beta in murine and human bone. J Bone Miner Res 14: 923929.
  • 14
    Sims NA, Clement-Lacroix P, Minet D, Fraslon-Vanhulle C, Gaillard-Kelly M, Resche-Rigon M, Baron R 2003 A functional androgen receptor is not sufficient to allow estradiol to protect bone after gonadectomy in estradiol receptor-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 111: 13191327.
  • 15
    Vidal O, Lindberg MK, Hollberg K, Baylink DJ, Andersson G, Lubahn DB, Mohan S, Gustafsson JA, Ohlsson C 2000 Estrogen receptor specificity in the regulation of skeletal growth and maturation in male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 54745479.
  • 16
    Windahl SH, Vidal O, Andersson G, Gustafsson JA, Ohlsson C 1999 Increased cortical bone mineral content but unchanged trabecular bone mineral density in female ERbeta(−/−) mice. J Clin Invest 104: 895901.
  • 17
    Moverare S, Venken K, Eriksson AL, Andersson N, Skrtic S, Wergedal J, Mohan S, Salmon P, Bouillon R, Gustafsson JA, Vanderschueren D, Ohlsson C 2003 Differential effects on bone of estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor activation in orchidectomized adult male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 1357313578.
  • 18
    Slemenda CW, Longcope C, Zhou L, Hui SL, Peacock M, Johnston CC 1997 Sex steroids and bone mass in older men. Positive associations with serum estrogens and negative associations with androgens. J Clin Invest 100: 17551759.
  • 19
    Greendale GA, Edelstein S, Barrett-Connor E 1997 Endogenous sex steroids and bone mineral density in older women and men: The Rancho Bernardo study. J Bone Miner Res 12: 18331843.
  • 20
    Khosla S, Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Klee GG, Riggs BL 1998 Relationship of serum sex steroid levels and bone turnover markers with bone mineral density in men and women: A key role for bioavailable estrogen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 22662274.
  • 21
    Ongphiphadhanakul B, Rajatanavin R, Chanprasertyothin S, Piaseu N, Chailurkit L 1998 Serum oestradiol and oestrogen-receptor gene polymorphism are associated with bone mineral density independently of serum testosterone in normal males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 803809.
  • 22
    Center JR, Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1999 Hormonal and biochemical parameters in the determination of osteoporosis in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 36263635.
  • 23
    Amin S, Zhang Y, Sawin CT, Evans SR, Hannan MT, Kiel DP, Wilson PWF, Felson DT 2000 Association of hypogonadism and estradiol levels with bone mineral density in elderly men from the Framingham study. Ann Intern Med 133: 951963.
  • 24
    Szulc P, Munoz F, Claustrat B, Garnero P, Marchand F, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD 2001 Bioavailable estradiol may be an important determinant of osteoporosis in men: The MINOS study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 192199.
  • 25
    Valimaki VV, Alfthan H, Ivaska KK, Loyttyniemi E, Pettersson K, Stenman UH, Valimaki MJ 2004 Serum estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin as regulators of peak bone mass and bone turnover rate in young Finnish men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 37853789.
  • 26
    Lorentzon M, Lorentzon R, Backstrom T, Nordstrom P 1999 Estrogen receptor gene polymorphism, but not estradiol levels, is related to bone density in healthy adolescent boys: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 45974601.
  • 27
    Khosla S, Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM 2001 Relationship of serum sex steroid levels to longitudinal changes in bone density in young versus elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 35553561.
  • 28
    Vermeulen A, Verdonck L, Kaufman JM 1999 A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 36663672.
  • 29
    van den Beld AW, De Jong FH, Grobbee DE, Pols HAP, Lamberts SWJ 2000 Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 32763282.
  • 30
    Blum WF, Breier BH 1994 Radioimmunoassays for IGFs and IGFBPs. Growth Regul 4 (Suppl 1): 1119.
  • 31
    Wildner M, Peters A, Raghuvanshi VS, Hohnloser J, Siebert U 2003 Superiority of age and weight as variables in predicting osteoporosis in postmenopausal white women. Osteoporos Int 14: 950956.
  • 32
    Conte FA, Grumbach MM, Ito Y, Fisher CR, Simpson ER 1994 A syndrome of female pseudohermaphrodism, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and multicystic ovaries associated with missense mutations in the gene encoding aromatase (P450 arom). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78: 12871292.
  • 33
    Morishima A, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER, Fisher C, Qin K 1995 Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 36893698.
  • 34
    Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, Takahashi H, Cohen RM, Specker B, Williams TC, Lubahn DB, Korach KS 1994 Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man. N Engl J Med 331: 10561061.
  • 35
    Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER 1997 Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med 337: 9195.
  • 36
    Seeman E 2003 Periosteal bone formation—a neglected determinant of bone strength. N Engl J Med 349: 320323.
  • 37
    Ruff CB, Hayes WC 1982 Subperiosteal expansion and cortical remodeling of the human femur and tibia with aging. Science 217: 945948.
  • 38
    Ahlborg HG, Johnell O, Turner CH, Rannevik G, Karlsson MK 2003 Bone loss and bone size after menopause. N Engl J Med 349: 327334.
  • 39
    Yakar S, Rosen CJ, Beamer WG, Ackert-Bicknell CL, Wu Y, Liu JL, Ooi GT, Setser J, Frystyk J, Boisclair YR, LeRoith D 2002 Circulating levels of IGF-1 directly regulate bone growth and density. J Clin Invest 110: 771781.
  • 40
    Sjogren K, Sheng M, Moverare S, Liu JL, Wallenius K, Tornell J, Isaksson O, Jansson JO, Mohan S, Ohlsson C 2002 Effects of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I on bone metabolism in mice. J Bone Miner Res 17: 19771987.
  • 41
    Ettinger B, Pressman A, Sklarin P, Bauer DC, Cauley JA, Cummings SR 1998 Associations between low levels of serum estradiol, bone density, and fractures among elderly women: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 22392243.
  • 42
    Hryb DJ, Khan MS, Rosner W 1985 Testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin binds to human prostatic cell membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 128: 432440.
  • 43
    Ooms ME, Lips P, Roos JC, van der Vijgh WJ, Popp-Snijders C, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM 1995 Vitamin D status and sex hormone binding globulin: Determinants of bone turnover and bone mineral density in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 10: 11771184.
  • 44
    Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Haynatzki G 2004 Endogenous levels of serum estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin determine bone mineral density, bone remodeling, the rate of bone loss, and response to treatment with estrogen in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 49544962.
  • 45
    Cummings SR, Browner WS, Bauer D, Stone K, Ensrud K, Jamal S, Ettinger B 1998 Endogenous hormones and the risk of hip and vertebral fractures among older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 339: 733738.