• 1
    Jackson WP, Dancaster C 1959 A consideration of the hypercalciuria in sarcoidosis, idiopathic hypercalciuria, and that produced by vitamin D; a new suggestion regarding calcium metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 19: 658680.
  • 2
    Bell NH, Gill JR Jr, Bartter FC 1964 On the abnormal calcium absorption in sarcoidosis. Evidence for increased sensitivity to vitamin D. Am J Med 36: 500513.
  • 3
    Barbour GL, Coburn JW, Slatopolsky E, Norman AW, Horst RL 1981 Hypercalcemia in an anephric patient with sarcoidosis: Evidence for extrarenal generation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. N Engl J Med 305: 440443.
  • 4
    Brunette MG, Chan M, Ferriere C, Roberts KD 1978 Site of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 synthesis in the kidney. Nature 276: 287289.
  • 5
    Adams JS, Gacad MA 1985 Characterization of 1 alpha-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 sterols by cultured alveolar macrophages from patients with sarcoidosis. J Exp Med 161: 755765.
  • 6
    Adams JS, Sharma OP, Gacad MA, Singer FR 1983 Metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by cultured pulmonary alveolar macrophages in sarcoidosis. J Clin Invest 72: 18561860.
  • 7
    Hewison M, Adams JS 2003 Hypercalcemia due to granuloma-forming disorders. In: FavisM (ed.) Primer on Metabolic Bone Diseases, 5th ed. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, New York, NY, USA, 257259.
  • 8
    Epstein S, Stern PH, Bell NH, Dowdeswell I, Turner RT 1984 Evidence for abnormal regulation of circulating 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and normal calcium metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int 36: 541544.
  • 9
    Abreu MT, Kantorovich V, Vasiliauskas EA, Gruntmanis U, Matuk R, Daigle K, Chen S, Zehnder D, Lin YC, Yang H, Hewison M, Adams JS 2004 Measurement of vitamin D levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients reveals a subset of Crohn's disease patients with elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low bone mineral density. Gut 53: 11291136.
  • 10
    Zehnder D, Bland R, Williams MC, McNinch RW, Howie AJ, Stewart PM, Hewison M 2001 Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 888894.
  • 11
    Fu GK, Lin D, Zhang MY, Bikle DD, Shackleton CH, Miller WL, Portale AA 1997 Cloning of human 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and mutations causing vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1. Mol Endocrinol 11: 19611970.
  • 12
    Osuji N, Fearfield L, Matutes E, Wotherspoon AC, Bunker C, Catovsky D 2003 Granulomatous slack skin disease—disease features and response to pentostatin. Br J Haematol 123: 297304.
  • 13
    Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zugel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL 2006 Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 311: 17701773.
  • 14
    Vidal M, Ramana CV, Dusso AS 2002 Stat1-vitamin D receptor interactions antagonize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D transcriptional activity and enhance stat1-mediated transcription. Mol Cell Biol 22: 27772787.
  • 15
    Dusso AS, Kamimura S, Gallieni M, Zhong M, Negrea L, Shapiro S, Slatopolsky E 1997 gamma-Interferon-induced resistance to 1,25-(OH)2 D3 in human monocytes and macrophages: A mechanism for the hypercalcemia of various granulomatoses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 22222232.
  • 16
    Hewison M, Kantorovich V, Liker HR, Van Herle AJ, Cohan P, Zehnder D, Adams JS 2003 Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia in lymphoma: Evidence for hormone production by tumor-adjacent macrophages. J Bone Miner Res 18: 579582.
  • 17
    Evans KN, Taylor H, Zehnder D, Kilby MD, Bulmer JN, Shah F, Adams JS, Hewison M 2004 Increased expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase in dysgerminomas: A novel form of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Am J Pathol 165: 807813.
  • 18
    Townsend K, Banwell CM, Guy M, Colston KW, Mansi JL, Stewart PM, Campbell MJ, Hewison M 2005 Autocrine metabolism of vitamin D in normal and malignant breast tissue. Clin Cancer Res 11: 35793586.
  • 19
    Ren S, Nguyen L, Wu S, Encinas C, Adams JS, Hewison M 2005 Alternative splicing of vitamin D-24-hydroxylase: A novel mechanism for the regulation of extrarenal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis. J Biol Chem 280: 2060420611.
  • 20
    Hewison M, Zehnder D, Chakraverty R, Adams JS 2004 Vitamin D and barrier function: A novel role for extra-renal 1α-hydroxylase. Mol Cell Endocrinol 215: 3138.