SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Cummings SR, Melton LJ 2002 Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. Lancet 359: 16711677.
  • 2
    Livshits G, Yakovensko K, Kobyliansky E 2003 Quantitative genetic study of radiographic hand bone size and geometry. Bone 32: 191198.
  • 3
    Koller DL, Liu G, Econs MJ, Hui SL, Morin PA, Joslyn G, Rodriguez LA, Conneally PM, Christian JC, Johnston CC Jr, Foroud T, Peacock M 2001 Genome screen for quantitative trait loci underlying normal variation in femoral structure. J Bone Miner Res 16: 985991.
  • 4
    Kontulainen S, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Vuori I 2002 Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res 17: 22812289.
  • 5
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1995 Effect of starting age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players. Ann Intern Med 123: 2731.
  • 6
    Seeman E 2004 The growth and age-related origins of bone fragility in men. Calcif Tissue Int 75: 100109.
  • 7
    Seeman E 1997 From density to structure: Growing up and growing old on the surfaces of bone. J Bone Miner Res 12: 509521.
  • 8
    Parfitt AM 1994 The two faces of growth: Benefits and risks to bone integrity. Osteoporos Int 4: 382398.
  • 9
    Ruff CB, Hayes WC 1982 Subperiosteal expansion and cortical remodeling of the human femur and tibia with aging. Science 217: 945948.
  • 10
    Wang XF, Duan Y, Beck TJ, Seeman E 2005 Varying contributions of growth and ageing to racial and sex differences in femoral neck structure and strength in old age. Bone 36: 978986.
  • 11
    Neu CM, Rauch F, Manz F, Schoenau E 2001 Modeling of cross-sectional bone size, mass and geometry at the proximal radius: A study of normal bone development using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Osteoporos Int 12: 538547.
  • 12
    Riggs BL, Melton LJ, Robb RA, Camp JJ, Atkinson EJ, Peterson JM, Rouleau PA, McCollough CH, Bouxsein ML, Khosla S 2004 Population-based study of age and sex differences in bone volumetric density, size, geometry, and structure at different skeletal sites. J Bone Miner Res 19: 19451954.
    Direct Link:
  • 13
    Balena R, Shih MS, Parfitt AM 1992 Bone resorption and formation on the periosteal envelope of the ilium: A histomorphometric study in healthy women. J Bone Miner Res 7: 14751482.
  • 14
    Ahlborg HG, Johnell O, Turner CH, Rannevik G, Karlsson MK 2003 Bone loss and bone size after menopause. N Engl J Med 349: 327334.
  • 15
    Seeman E 2003 Periosteal bone formation – a neglected determinant of bone strength. N Engl J Med 349: 320323.
  • 16
    Ruff CB, Hayes WC 1988 Sex differences in age-related remodelling of the femur and tibia. J Orthop Res 6: 886896.
  • 17
    Arlot ME, Sornay-Rendu E, Garnero P, Vey-Marty B, Delmas PD 1997 Apparent pre and postmenopausal bone loss evaluated by DXA at different skeletal sites in women: The OFELY cohort. J Bone Miner Res 12: 683690.
  • 18
    Szulc P, Uusi-Rasi K, Claustrat B, Marchand F, Beck TJ, Delmas PD 2004 The role of sex steroids in the regulation of bone morphology in men. The MINOS study. Osteoporos Int 15: 907917.
  • 19
    Szulc P, Munoz F, Duboeuf F, Marchand F, Delmas PD 2006 Low width of tubular bones is associated with increased risk of fragility fractures in elderly men—the MINOS study. Bone 38: 595602.
  • 20
    Garnero P, Grimaux M, Seguin P, Delmas PD 1994 Characteristics of immunoreactive forms of human osteocalcin generated in vivo and in vitro. J Bone Miner Res 9: 255264.
  • 21
    Rosenquist C, Fledelius C, Christgau S, Pedersen BJ, Bonde M, Qvist P, Christiansen C 1998 Serum CrossLaps one step ELISA. First application of monoclonal antobodies for measurement in serum of bone-related degradation products from C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. Clin Chem 44: 22812289.
  • 22
    Seeman E, Delmas PD 2006 Bone quality: The material and structure basis of bone strength and fragility. N Engl J Med 354: 22502261.
  • 23
    Delmas PD, Eastell R, Garnero P, Seibel MJ, Stepan J 2000 The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporos Int 11(Suppl 6): S217.
  • 24
    Greenspan SL, Beck TJ, Resnick NM, Bhattacharya R, Parker RA 2005 Effect of hormone replacement, alendronate, or combination therapy on hip structural geometry: A 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 20: 15251532.
  • 25
    Kaptoge S, Dalzell N, Loveridge N, Beck TJ, Khaw KT, Reeve J 2003 Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65. Bone 32: 561570.
  • 26
    Garn SM, Sullivan TV, Decker SA, Larkin FA, Hawthorne VM 1992 Continuing bone expansion and increasing bone loss over a two-decade period in men and women from a total community sample. Am J Hum Biol 4: 5767.
  • 27
    Beck TJ 2003 Measuring the structural strength of bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: Principles, technical limitations, and future possibilities. Osteoporos Int 14(Suppl 5): S81S88.
  • 28
    Boivin G, Meunier PJ 2002 The degree of mineralization of bone tissue measured by computerized quantitative contact microradiography. Calcif Tissue Int 70: 503511.
  • 29
    Bousson V, Meunier A, Bergot C, Vicaut E, Rochat MA, Morais MH, Laval-Jeantet AM, Laredo JD 2001 Distribution of intracortical porosity in human midfemoral cortex by age and gender. J Bone Miner Res 16: 13081317.
  • 30
    Russo CR, Lauretani F, Seeman E, Bartali B, Bandinelli S, Di Iorio A, Guralnik J, Ferrucci L 2005 Structural adaptations to bone loss in aging men and women. Bone 38: 112118.
  • 31
    Mayhew PM, Thomas CD, Clement JG, Loveridge N, Beck TJ, Bonfield W, Burgoyne W, Reeve J 2005 Relation between age, femoral neck cortical stability, and hip fracture risk. Lancet 366: 129135.
  • 32
    Ito M, Ikeda K, Nishiguchi M, Shindo H, Uetani M, Hosoi T, Orimo H 2005 Multi-detector row CT imaging of vertebral microstructure for evaluation of fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 20: 18281836.
  • 33
    Sato M, Vahle J, Schmidt A, Westmore M, Smith S, Rowley E, Ma LY 2002 Abnormal bone architecture and biomechanical properties with near-lifetime treatment of rats with PTH. Endocrinology 143: 32303242.
  • 34
    Hirano T, Burr DB, Cain RL, Hock JM 2000 Changes in geometry and cortical porosity in adult, ovary-intact rabbits after 5 months treatment with LY333334 (hPTH 1-34). Calcif Tissue Int 66: 456460.
  • 35
    Dempster DW, Cosman F, Kurland ES, Zhou H, Nieves J, Woelfert L, Shane E, Plavetic K, Muller R, Bilezikian J, Lindsay R 2001 Effects of daily treatment with parathyroid hormone on bone microarchitecture and turnover in patients with osteoporosis: A paired biopsy study. J Bone Miner Res 16: 18461853.
  • 36
    Zanchetta JR, Bogado CE, Ferretti JL, Wang O, Wilson MG, Sato M, Gaich GA, Dalsky GP, Myers SL 2003 Effects of teriparatide [recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–34)] on cortical bone in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 18: 539543.
  • 37
    Smith BB, Cosenza ME, Mancini A, Dunstan C, Gregson R, Martin SW, Smith SY, Davis H 2003 A toxicity profile of osteoprotegerin in the cynomolgus monkey. Int J Toxicol 22: 403412.
  • 38
    Li X, Geng Z, Kaufman S, Tan HL, Morony S, Grisanti M, Hoffmann K, Ominsky M, Kostenuik PJ 2005 RANKL inhibition improves cortical bone geometry by stimulation periosteal bone formation in orchidectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 20: S1; S57.
  • 39
    McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Cohen SB, Bolognese MA, Woodson GC, Moffett AH, Peacock M, Miller PD, Lederman SN, Chesnut CH, Lain D, Kivitz AJ, Holloway DL, Zhang C, Peterson MC, Bekker PJ 2006 Denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 354: 821831.
  • 40
    Atkinson J, Cranmer P, Saunders T, Niehaus M, Smith SY, Varela A, Ominsky MS, Cosenza ME, Kostenuik PJ 2005 AMG 162, a fully human RANKL antibody, increases bone mass and bone strength in cynomolgus monkeys. J Bone Miner Res 20: S1; S453.
  • 41
    Kumar S, Rehm S, Boyce R, Birmingham J, Stroup G, Jerome C, Weir P 2005 Treatment of young male monkeys for 12 months with a highly potent inhibitor of cathepsin K inhibits bone resorption, and increases mineral density and strength. J Bone Miner Res 20: S1; S80.
  • 42
    Stroup G, Jerome C, Yamashita DS, Kumar S 2005 Histomorphometric and biochemical evidence for a cortical bone-forming effect of a cathepsin K inhibitor in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Bone Miner Res 20: S1; S80.
  • 43
    Albright F, Smith PH, Richardson AM 1941 Postmenopausal osteoporosis. JAMA 116: 24652474.
  • 44
    Lips P, Courpron P, Meunier PJ 1978 Mean wall thickness in trabecular bone packets in the human iliac crest: Changes with age. Calcif Tissue Res 26: 1317.