• 1
    Couch J 1955 Cage layer fatigue. Feed Age 5: 5557.
  • 2
    Arden NK, Baker J, Hogg C, Baan K, Spector TD 1996 The heritability of bone mineral density, ultrasound of the calcaneus and hip axis length: A study of postmenopausal twins. J Bone Miner Res 11: 530534.
  • 3
    Harris M, Nguyen TV, Howard GM, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1998 Genetic and environmental correlations between bone formation and bone mineral density: A twin study. Bone 22: 141145.
  • 4
    Deng HW, Chen WM, Recker S, Stegman MR, Li JL, Davies KM, Zhou Y, Deng H, Heaney R, Recker RR 2000 Genetic determination of Colles' fracture and differential bone mass in women with and without Colles' fracture. J Bone Miner Res 15: 12431252.
  • 5
    Michaelsson K, Melhus H, Ferm H, Ahlbom A, Pedersen NL 2005 Genetic liability to fractures in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 165: 18251830.
  • 6
    Dacke CG, Arkle S, Cook DJ, Wormstone IM, Jones S, Zaidi M, Bascal ZA 1993 Medullary bone and avian calcium regulation. J Exp Biol 184: 6388.
  • 7
    Whitehead CC, Fleming RH 2000 Osteoporosis in cage layers. Poult Sci 79: 10331041.
  • 8
    Hester PY, Schreiweis MA, Orban JI, Mazzuco H, Kopka MN, Ledur MC, Moody DE 2004 Assessing bone mineral density in vivo: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Poult Sci 83: 215221.
  • 9
    Kim WK, Ford BC, Mitchell AD, Elkin RG, Leach RM 2004 Comparative assessment of bone among wild-type, restricted ovulator and out-of-production hens. Br Poult Sci 45: 463470.
  • 10
    Schreiweis MA, Orban JI, Ledur MC, Moody DE, Hester PY 2005 Validation of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in live White Leghorns. Poult Sci 84: 9199.
  • 11
    Korver DR, Saunders-Blades JL, Nadeau KL 2004 Assessing bone mineral density in vivo: Quantitative computed tomography. Poult Sci 83: 222229.
  • 12
    Zambonin Zallone A, Teti A, Primavera MV 1982 Isolated osteoclasts in primary culture: First observations on structure and survival in culture media. Anat Embryol (Berl) 165: 405413.
  • 13
    Schreiweis MA, Hester PY, Moody DE 2005 Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens. Genet Sel Evol 37: 677698.
  • 14
    Hillier LW, Miller W, Birney E, Warren W, Hardison RC, Ponting CP, Bork P, Burt DW, Groenen MA, Delany ME, Dodgson JB, Chinwalla AT, Cliften PF, Clifton SW, Delehaunty KD, Fronick C, Fulton RS, Graves TA, Kremitzki C, Layman D, Magrini V, McPherson JD, Miner TL, Minx P, Nash WE, Nhan MN, Nelson JO, Oddy LG, Pohl CS, Randall-Maher J, Smith SM, Wallis JW, Yang SP, Romanov MN, Rondelli CM, Paton B, Smith J, Morrice D, Daniels L, Tempest HG, Robertson L, Masabanda JS, Griffin DK, Vignal A, Fillon V, Jacobbson L, Kerje S, Andersson L, Crooijmans RP, Aerts J, van der Poel JJ, Ellegren H, Caldwell RB, Hubbard SJ, Grafham DV, Kierzek AM, McLaren SR, Overton IM, Arakawa H, Beattie KJ, Bezzubov Y, Boardman PE, Bonfield JK, Croning MD, Davies RM, Francis MD, Humphray SJ, Scott CE, Taylor RG, Tickle C, Brown WR, Rogers J, Buerstedde JM, Wilson SA, Stubbs L, Ovcharenko I, Gordon L, Lucas S, Miller MM, Inoko H, Shiina T, Kaufman J, Salomonsen J, Skjoedt K, Wong GK, Wang J, Liu B, Yu J, Yang H, Nefedov M, Koriabine M, Dejong PJ, Goodstadt L, Webber C, Dickens NJ, Letunic I, Suyama M, Torrents D, von Mering C, Zdobnov EM, Makova K, Nekrutenko A, Elnitski L, Eswara P, King DC, Yang S, Tyekucheva S, Radakrishnan A, Harris RS, Chiaromonte F, Taylor J, He J, Rijnkels M, Griffiths-Jones S, Ureta-Vidal A, Hoffman MM, Severin J, Searle SM, Law AS, Speed D, Waddington D, Cheng Z, Tuzun E, Eichler E, Bao Z, Flicek P, Shteynberg DD, Brent MR, Bye JM, Huckle EJ, Chatterji S, Dewey C, Pachter L, Kouranov A, Mourelatos Z, Hatzigeorgiou AG, Paterson AH, Ivarie R, Brandstrom M, Axelsson E, Backstrom N, Berlin S, Webster MT, Pourquie O, Reymond A, Ucla C, Antonarakis SE, Long M, Emerson JJ, Betran E, Dupanloup I, Kaessmann H, Hinrichs AS, Bejerano G, Furey TS, Harte RA, Raney B, Siepel A, Kent WJ, Haussler D, Eyras E, Castelo R, Abril JF, Castellano S, Camara F, Parra G, Guigo R, Bourque G, Tesler G, Pevzner PA, Smit A, Fulton LA, Mardis ER, Wilson RK 2004 Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution. Nature 432: 695716.
  • 15
    Parsons CA, Mroczkowski HJ, McGuigan FE, Albagha OM, Manolagas S, Reid DM, Ralston SH, Shmookler Reis RJ 2005 Interspecies synteny mapping identifies a quantitative trait locus for bone mineral density on human chromosome Xp22. Hum Mol Genet 14: 31413148.
  • 16
    Andersson L 2001 Genetic dissection of phenotypic diversity in farm animals. Nat Rev Genet 2: 130138.
  • 17
    Fumihito A, Miyake T, Sumi S, Takada M, Ohno S, Kondo N 1994 One subspecies of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) suffices as the matriarchic ancestor of all domestic breeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 1250512509.
  • 18
    Nishibori M, Shimogiri T, Hayashi T, Yasue H 2005 Molecular evidence for hybridization of species in the genus Gallus except for Gallus varius. Anim Genet 36: 367375.
  • 19
    Carlborg O, Kerje S, Schütz K, Jacobsson L, Jensen P, Andersson L 2003 A global search reveals epistatic interaction between QTL for early growth in the chicken. Genome Res 13: 413421.
  • 20
    Jensen P, Keeling L, Schütz K, Andersson L, Mormede P, Brandstrom H, Forkman B, Kerje S, Fredriksson R, Ohlsson C, Larsson S, Mallmin H, Kindmark A 2005 Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits. Physiol Behav 86: 5260.
  • 21
    Kerje S, Carlborg O, Jacobsson L, Schütz K, Hartmann C, Jensen P, Andersson L 2003 The twofold difference in adult size between the red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens is largely explained by a limited number of QTLs. Anim Genet 34: 264274.
  • 22
    Schütz K, Kerje S, Carlborg O, Jacobsson L, Andersson L, Jensen P 2002 QTL analysis of a red junglefowl x White Leghorn intercross reveals trade-off in resource allocation between behavior and production traits. Behav Genet 32: 423433.
  • 23
    Schütz KE, Kerje S, Jacobsson L, Forkman B, Carlborg O, Andersson L, Jensen P 2004 Major growth QTLs in fowl are related to fearful behavior: Possible genetic links between fear responses and production traits in a red junglefowl x white leghorn intercross. Behav Genet 34: 121130.
  • 24
    Green P, Falls K, Crook S 1990 Documentation for CRIMAP Version 2.4. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
  • 25
    Lander E, Kruglyak L 1995 Genetic dissection of complex traits: Guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nat Genet 11: 241247.
  • 26
    Haley CS, Knott SA, Elsen JM 1994 Mapping quantitative trait loci in crosses between outbred lines using least squares. Genetics 136: 11951207.
  • 27
    Seaton G, Haley CS, Knott SA, Kearsey M, Visscher PM 2002 QTL Express: Mapping quantitative trait loci in simple and complex pedigrees. Bioinformatics 18: 339340.
  • 28
    Perez-Enciso M, Misztal I 2004 Qxpak: A versatile mixed model application for genetical genomics and QTL analyses. Bioinformatics 20: 27922798.
  • 29
    Schreiweis MA, Hester PY, Settarand P, Moody DE 2005 Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with egg quality, egg production, and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens. Anim Genet 37: 106112.
  • 30
    Carlborg O, Brockmann GA, Haley CS 2005 Simultaneous mapping of epistatic QTL in DU6i x DBA/2 mice. Mamm Genome 16: 481494.
  • 31
    Wright D, Nakamichi R, Krause J, Butlin RK 2006 QTL Analysis of Behavioral and Morphological Differentiation Between Wild and Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Behav Genet 36: 271284.
  • 32
    Windahl SH, Vidal O, Andersson G, Gustafsson JA, Ohlsson C 1999 Increased cortical bone mineral content but unchanged trabecular bone mineral density in female ERbeta(−/−) mice. J Clin Invest 104: 895901.
  • 33
    Cransberg PH, Parkinson GB, Wilson S, Thorp BH 2001 Sequential studies of skeletal calcium reserves and structural bone volume in a commercial layer flock. Br Poult Sci 42: 260265.
  • 34
    Bonucci E, Gherardi G 1975 Histochemical and electron microscopy investigations on medullary bone. Cell Tissue Res 163: 8197.
  • 35
    Hurwitz S 1965 Calcium turnover in different bone segments of laying fowl. Am J Physiol 208: 203207.
  • 36
    van de Velde JP, Vermeiden JP, Touw JJ, Veldhuijzen JP 1984 Changes in activity of chicken medullary bone cell populations in relation to the egg-laying cycle. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 5: 191193.
  • 37
    Bloom MA, Domm LV, Nalbandov AV, Bloom W 1958 Medullary bone of laying chickens. Am J Anat 102: 411453.
  • 38
    Holtrop ME, King GJ 1977 The ultrastructure of the osteoclast and its functional implications. Clin Orthop 123: 177196.
  • 39
    Miller SC, Bowman BM 1981 Medullary bone osteogenesis following estrogen administration to mature male Japanese quail. Dev Biol 87: 5263.
  • 40
    Fleming RH, McCormack HA, McTeir L, Whitehead CC 1998 Medullary bone and humeral breaking strength in laying hens. Res Vet Sci 64: 6367.
  • 41
    Beamer WG, Shultz KL, Donahue LR, Churchill GA, Sen S, Wergedal JR, Baylink DJ, Rosen CJ 2001 Quantitative trait loci for femoral and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ inbred strains of mice. J Bone Miner Res 16: 11951206.
  • 42
    Drake TA, Schadt E, Hannani K, Kabo JM, Krass K, Colinayo V, Greaser LE III, Goldin J, Lusis AJ 2001 Genetic loci determining bone density in mice with diet-induced atherosclerosis. Physiol Genomics 5: 205215.
  • 43
    Lang DH, Sharkey NA, Mack HA, Vogler GP, Vandenbergh DJ, Blizard DA, Stout JT, McClearn GE 2005 Quantitative trait loci analysis of structural and material skeletal phenotypes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2 second-generation and recombinant inbred mice. J Bone Miner Res 20: 8899.
  • 44
    Masinde GL, Wergedal J, Davidson H, Mohan S, Li R, Li X, Baylink DJ 2003 Quantitative trait loci for periosteal circumference (PC): Identification of single loci and epistatic effects in F2 MRL/SJL mice. Bone 32: 554560.