SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Gass M, Dawson-Hughes B 2006 Preventing osteoporosis-related fractures: An overview. Am J Med 119: S3S11.
  • 2
    Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR 2004 American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: Physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 19851996.
  • 3
    Suominen H 1993 Bone mineral density and long term exercise. An overview of cross-sectional athlete studies. Sports Med 16: 316330.
  • 4
    Hetland ML, Haarbo J, Christiansen C 1993 Low bone mass and high bone turnover in male long distance runners. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77: 770775.
  • 5
    Nichols JF, Palmer JE, Levy SS 2003 Low bone mineral density in highly trained male master cyclists. Osteoporos Int 14: 644649.
  • 6
    Rico H, Revilla M, Villa LF, Gomez-Castresana F, del Varez BM 1993 Body composition in postpubertal boy cyclists. J Sports Med Phys Fintess 33: 278281.
  • 7
    Sabo D, Bernd L, Pfeil J, Rieiter A 1996 Bone quaility in the lumbar spine in high-performance athletes. Eur Spine J 5: 258263.
  • 8
    Stewart AD, Hannan J 2000 Total and regional bone density in male runners, cyclists, and controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: 13731377.
  • 9
    Bilanin JE, Blanchard MS, Russek-Cohen E 1989 Lower vertebral bone density in male long distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 21: 6670.
  • 10
    Hind K, Truscott JG, Evans JA 2006 Low lumbar spine bone mineral density in both male and female endurance runners. Bone 39: 880885.
  • 11
    MacDougall JD, Webber CE, Martin J, Ormerod S, Chesley A, Younglai EV, Gordon CL, Blimkie CJ 1992 Relationship among running mileage, bone density, and serum testosterone in male runners. J Appl Physiol 73: 11651170.
  • 12
    Anonymous 1996 Rapid bone loss in high-performance male athletes. Sports Med Digest 18: 20.
  • 13
    Maimoun L, Galy O, Manetta J, Coste O, Peruchon E, Micallef JP, Mariano-Goulart D, Couret I, Sultan C, Rossi M 2004 Competitive season of triathlon does not alter bone metabolism and bone mineral status in male triathletes. Int J Sports Med 25: 230234.
  • 14
    McClanahan BS, Ward KD, Vukadinovich C, Klesges RC, Chitwood L, Kinzey SJ, Brown S, Frate D 2002 Bone mineral density in triathletes over a competitive season. J Sports Sci 20: 463469.
  • 15
    Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Khan KM, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD 1997 Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: A 12-month longitudinal study. Bone 20: 477484.
  • 16
    Klesges RC, Ward KD, Shelton ML, Applegate WB, Cantler ED, Palmieri GM, Harmon K, Davis J 1996 Changes in bone mineral content in male athletes: Mechanisms of action and intervention effects. JAMA 276: 226230.
  • 17
    Guillemant J, Accarie C, Peres G, Guillemant S 2004 Acute effects of an oral calcium load on markers of bone metabolism during endurance cycling exercise in male athletes. Calcif Tissue Int 74: 407414.
  • 18
    Institute of Medicine FaNB 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 19
    Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ 1986 A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol 60: 20202027.
  • 20
    O'Toole ML, Johnson KC, Satterfield S, Bush AJ, Koo WW, Klesges RC, Applegate WB 2000 Do sweat calcium losses affect bone mass during firefighter training? J Occup Environ Med 42: 10541059.
  • 21
    Taylor RP, Polliack AA, Bader DL 1994 The analysis of metabolites in human sweat: Analytical methods and potential application to investigation of pressure ischaemia of soft tissues. Ann Clin Biochem 31: 1824.
  • 22
    Verde T, Shephard RJ, Corey P, Moore R 1982 Sweat composition in exercise and in heat. J Appl Physiol 53: 15401545.
  • 23
    Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ 1997 Whole body sweat collection in humans: An improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content. J Appl Physiol 82: 336341.
  • 24
    Palacios C, Wigertz K, Weaver CM 2003 Comparison of 24 hour whole body versus patch tests for estimating body surface electrolyte losses. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13: 479488.
  • 25
    Armstrong DW III, Shakir KM, Drake AJ III 2000 Dual X-ray absorptiometry total body bone mineral content and bone mineral density in 18- to 22-year-old caucasian men. Bone 27: 835839.
  • 26
    Wensel RH, Rich C, Brown AC, Volwiler W 1969 Absorption of calcium measured by intubation and perfusion of the intact hyman small intestine. J Clin Invest 48: 17681775.
  • 27
    Milgrom C, Finestone A, Simkin A, Ekenman I, Mendelson S, Millgram M, Nyska M, Larsson E, Burr D 2000 In-vivo strain measurements to evaluate the strengthening potential of exercises on the tibial bone. J Bone Joint Surg Br 82: 591594.
  • 28
    Warner SE, Shaw JM, Dalsky GP 2002 Bone mineral density of competitive male mountain and road cyclists. Bone 30: 281286.
  • 29
    Bouassida A, Zalleg D, Zaouali Ajina M, Gharbi N, Duclos M, Richalet JP, Tabka Z 2003 Parathyroid hormone concentrations during and after two periods of high intensity exercise with and without an intervening recovery period. Eur J Appl Physiol 88: 339344.
  • 30
    Maimoun L, Manetta J, Couret I, Dupuy AM, Mariano-Goulart D, Rossi M 2006 The intensity level of physical exercise and the bone metabolism response. Int J Sports Med 27: 105111.
  • 31
    Salvesen H, Johansson AG, Foxdal P, Wide L, Piehl-Aulin K, Ljunghall S 1994 Intact serum parathyroid hormone levels increase during running exercise in well-trained men. Calcif Tissue Int 54: 256261.
  • 32
    Thorsen K, Kristoffersson A, Hultdin J, Lorentzon R 1997 Effects of moderate endurance exercise on calcium, parathyroid hormone, and markers of bone metabolism in young women. Calcif Tissue Int 60: 1620.
  • 33
    Zerath E, Holy X, Douce P, Guezennec CY, Chatard JC 1997 Effect of endurance training on postexercise parathyroid hormone levels in elderly men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 11391145.
  • 34
    Chappard C, Houillier P, Paillard M 2001 Bone status in primary hyperparathyroidism. Joint Bone Spine 68: 112119.
  • 35
    Cosman F 2005 Anabolic therapy for osteoporosis: Parathyroid hormone. Curr Osteoporos Rep 3: 143149.
  • 36
    Ihle R, Loucks AB 2004 Dose-response relationships between energy availability and bone turnover in young exercising women. J Bone Miner Res 19: 12311240.
  • 37
    Ricci TA, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN Jr, Stahl T, Chowdhury HA, Shapses SA 2001 Moderate energy restriction increases bone resorption in obese postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 347352.
  • 38
    Hackney AC, Szczepanowska E, Viru AM 2003 Basal testicular testosterone production in endurance-trained men is suppressed. Eur J Appl Physiol 89: 198201.
  • 39
    Hackney AC 2001 Endurance exercise training and reproductive endocrine dysfunction in men: Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Curr Pharm Des 7: 261273.
  • 40
    Lucia A, Diaz B, Hoyos J, Fernandez C, Villa G, Bandres F, Chicharro JL 2001 Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race. Br J Sports Med 35: 424430.
  • 41
    Vanderschueren D, Vandenput L, Boonen S, Lindberg MK, Bouillon R, Ohlsson C 2004 Androgens and bone. Endocr Rev 25: 389425.
  • 42
    Mastorakos G, Pavlatou M, Amantikandarakis E, Chrousos GP 2005 Exercise and the stress system. Hormones (Athens) 4: 7389.
  • 43
    Chennaoui M, Gomez-Marino D, Drogou C, Bourrilhon C, Sautivet S, Guezennec CY 2004 Hormonal and metabolic adaptation in professional cyclists during training. Can J Appl Physiol 29: 714730.
  • 44
    Pedersen BK, Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Bruunsgaard H 1998 The cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76: 505511.
  • 45
    Manolagas SC, Jilka RL 1995 Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. Emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 332: 305311.
  • 46
    Yun AJ, Lee PY 2004 Maldaptation of the link between inflammation and bone turnover may be a key determinant of osteoporosis. Med Hypotheses 63: 532537.
  • 47
    Snow CM, Williams DP, LaRiviere J, Fuchs RK, Robinson TL 2001 Bone gains and losses follow seasonal training and detraining in gymnasts. Calcif Tiss Int 69: 712.