• 1
    Spencer H, Kramer L, Lesniak M, De Bartolo M, Norris C, Osis D 1984 Calcium requirements in humans. Report of original data and a review. Clin Orthop 184: 270280.
  • 2
    Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 3
    Carpenter TO, Keller M, Schwartz D, Mitnick M, Smith C, Ellison A, Carey D, Comite F, Horst R, Travers R, Glorieux FH, Gundberg CM, Poole AR, Insogna KL 1996 24,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation corrects hyperparathyroidism and improves skeletal abnormalities in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets–a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 23812388.
  • 4
    Devine A, Wilson SG, Dick IM, Prince RL 2002 Effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal calcium absorption and bone turnover in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 75: 283288.
  • 5
    Steingrimsdottir L, Gunnarsson O, Indridason OS, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G 2005 Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. JAMA 294: 23362341.
  • 6
    Goussous R, Song L, Dallal GE, Dawson-Hughes B 2005 Lack of effect of calcium intake on the 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to oral vitamin D3. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 707711.
  • 7
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B 2004 Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: A population-based study of younger and older adults. Am J Med 116: 634639.
  • 8
    Ooms ME, Roos JC, Bezemer PD, van der Vijgh WJ, Bouter LM, Lips P 1995 Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: A randomized double-blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 10521058.
  • 9
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G 1991 Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 115: 505512.
  • 10
    Zanello SB, Collins ED, Marinissen MJ, Norman AW, Boland RL 1997 Vitamin D receptor expression in chicken muscle tissue and cultured myoblasts. Horm Metab Res 29: 231236.
  • 11
    Bischoff HA, Borchers M, Gudat F, Duermueller U, Theiler R, Staehlin H, Dick W 2001 In situ detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue. Histochem J 33: 1924.
  • 12
    de Boland ARBoland RL 1987 Rapid changes in skeletal muscle calcium uptake induced in vitro by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are suppressed by calcium channel blockers. Endocrinology 120: 18581864.
  • 13
    Capiati DA, Vazquez G, Boland RL 2001 Protein kinase C alpha modulates the Ca2+ influx phase of the Ca2+ response to 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D3 in skeletal muscle cells. Horm Metab Res 33: 201206.
  • 14
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Borchers M, Gudat F, Durmuller U, Stahelin HB, Dick W 2004 Vitamin D receptor expression in human muscle tissue decreases with age. J Bone Miner Res 19: 265269.
  • 15
    Yoshikawa S, Nakamura T, Tanabe H, Imamura T 1979 Osteomalacic myopathy. Endocrinol Jpn 26: 6572.
  • 16
    Sorensen OH, Lund B, Saltin B, Lund B, Andersen RB, Hjorth L, Melsen F, Mosekilde L 1979 Myopathy in bone loss of ageing: Improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium. Clin Sci (Lond) 56: 157161.
  • 17
    Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K 2005 Low-dose vitamin D prevents muscular atrophy and reduces falls and hip fractures in women after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Cerebrovasc Dis 20: 187192.
  • 18
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Zhang Y, Karlson EW, Dawson-Hughes B 2004 Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 752758.
  • 19
    Zhu K, Dick I, Devine A, Bruce D, Prince R 2006 An RCT of Vitamin D or Placebo on Falls in Elderly Women with Low Vitamin D Status and a Falling History. J Bone Miner Res 21: 1227.
  • 20
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett W, Staehlin H, Bazemore M, Zee R, Wong J 2004 Effect of vitamin D on falls—a meta-analysis. JAMA 291: 19992006.
  • 21
    Flicker L, MacInnis RJ, Stein MS, Scherer SC, Mead KE, Nowson CA, Thomas J, Lowndes C, Hopper JL, Wark JD 2005 Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 53: 18811888.
  • 22
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B 2006 Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: A 3-year randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 166: 424430.
  • 23
    Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA, RECORD Trial Group>. 2005 Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365: 16211628.
  • 24
    Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I 2005 Randomized controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ 330: 10031008.
  • 25
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett W, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B 2005 Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293: 22572264.
  • 26
    Meyer HE, Smedshaug GB, Kvaavik E, Falch JA, Tverdal A, Pedersen JI 2002 Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 17: 709715.
  • 27
    Lips P, Graafmans WC, Ooms ME, Bezemer PD, Bouter LM 1996 Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 124: 400406.
  • 28
    Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D, Women's Health Initiative Investigators. 2006 Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 354: 669683.
  • 29
    Avenell A, Gillespie W, Gillespie L, O'Connell D 2007 Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures associated with involutional and post-menopausal osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: 2007.
  • 30
    Boonen S, Lips P, Bouillon R, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Vanderschueren D, Haentjens P. 2007 Need for additional calcium to reduce risk of hip fracture with vitamin D supplementation: Evidence from a comparative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92: 14151423.
  • 31
    Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ 2003 Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77: 204210.
  • 32
    Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B 2002 Plasma vitamin D and 25OHD responses of young and old men to supplementation with vitamin D3. J Am Coll Nutr 21: 357362.
  • 33
    Vieth R, Chan PC, MacFarlane GD 2001 Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 288294.
  • 34
    Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ 1992 Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 327: 16371642.
  • 35
    Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, Garnero P, Meunier PJ 2002 Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: Confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: The Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int 13: 257264.
  • 36
    Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE 1997 Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337: 670676.
  • 37
    Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT 2003 Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 326: 469475.