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REFERENCES

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    Holick MF 2003 Vitamin D: A millennium perspective. J Cell Biochem 88: 296307.
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    Tian XQ, Chen TC, Lu Z, Shao Q, Holick MF 1994 Characterization of the translocation process of vitamin D3 from the skin into the circulation. Endocrinology 135: 655661.
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    Holick MF 2004 Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 79: 362371.
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    Chen TC, Turner AK, Holick MF 1990 Methods for the determination of the circulating concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Nutr Biochem 1: 315319.
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    Webb AR, Pilbeam C, Hanafin N, Holick MF 1990 A one-year study to evaluate the roles of exposure to sunlight and diet on the circulating concentrations of 25-OH-D in an elderly population in Boston. Am J Clin Nutr 51: 10751081.
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    Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, Grant WB, Moh SB, Lipkin M, Hewmark HL, Giovannucci E, Wei M, Holick MF 2005 Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97: 179194.
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    Cantorna MT, Zhu Y, Froicu M, Wittke A 2004 Vitamin D status, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and the immune system. Am J Clin Nutr 80 (Suppl): 1717S1720S.
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    Boonen S, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Cooper C, Lips P, Ljunggren O, Meunier PJ, Reginster JY 2006 Addressing the musculoskeletal components of fracture risk with calcium and vitamin D: A review of the evidence. Calcif Tissue Int 78: 257270.
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    Tangpricha V, Koutkia P, Rieke SM, Chen TC, Perez AA, Holick MF 2003 Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D: A novel approach to enhance vitamin D nutritional health. Am J Clin Nutr 77: 14781483.
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    Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R 2005 Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16: 713716.
  • 33
    Vieth R 2004 Why the optimal requirement for vitamin D3 is probably much higher than what is officially recommended for adults. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89-90: 575579.
  • 34
    Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, Klein EK, Young A, Bibold D, Reitz R, Salameh W, Ameri A, Tannenbaum A 2007 Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (in press).
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    Koutkia P, Lu Z, Chen TC, Holick MF 2001 Treatment of vitamin D deficiency due to Crohn's disease with tanning bed ultraviolet B radiation. Gastroenterology 121: 14851488.
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    Chel VGM, Ooms ME, Popp-Snijders C, Pavel S, Schothorst AA, Meulemans CCE, Lips P 1998 Ultraviolet irradiation corrects vitamin D deficiency and suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. J Bone Miner Res 13: 12381242.
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    Chuck A, Todd J, Diffey B 2001 Subliminal ultraviolet-B irradiation for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly: A feasibility study. Photochem Photoimmun Photomed 17: 168171.
  • 38
    Chen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, Mathieu J, Person KS, Zhang A, Kohn N, Martinello S, Berkowitz R, Holick MF 2007 Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys 460: 213217.
  • 39
    Tangpricha V, Turner A, Spina C, Decastro S, Chen T, Holick MF 2004 Tanning is associated with optimal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration) and higher bone mineral density. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 16451649.