• 1
    NIH Consensus Development Conference 1993 Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94: 646650.
  • 2
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP 1997 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12: 17611768.
  • 3
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, Genant HK, Palermo L, Scott J, Vogt TM 1993 Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 341: 7275.
  • 4
    Peacock M, Turner CH, Liu G, Manatunga AK, Timmerman L, Johnston CC Jr 1995 Better discrimination of hip fracture using bone density, geometry and architecture. Osteoporos Int 5: 167173.
  • 5
    Faulkner KG, Cumming SR, Black D, Palermo L, Gluer CC, Genant HK 1993 Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 8: 12111217.
  • 6
    Stone KL, Seeley DG, Lui LY, Cauley JA, Ensrud K, Browner WS, Nevitt MC, Cummings SR 2003 BMD at multiple sites and risk of fracture of multiple types: Long-term results from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 18: 19471954.
  • 7
    Peacock M, Turner CH, Econs MJ, Foroud T 2002 Genetics of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23: 303326.
  • 8
    Arden NK, Baker J, Hogg C, Bann K, Spector TD 1996 The heritability of bone mineral density, ultrasound of the calcaneus and hip axis length: A study of postmenopausal twins. J Bone Miner Res 11: 530534.
  • 9
    Garnero P, Arden NK, Griffiths G, Delmas PD, Spector TD 1996 Genetic influence on bone turnover in postmenopausal twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 140146.
  • 10
    Huang QY, Xu FH, Shen H, Zhao LJ, Deng HY, Liu YJ, Dvomyk V, Conway T, Davies KM, Li JL, Liu YZ, Recker RR, Deng HW 2004 A second-stage genome scan for QTLs influencing BMD variation. Calcif Tissue Int 75: 138143.
  • 11
    Huang QY, Xu FH, Shen H, Zhao LJ, Deng HY, Conway T, Liu YJ, Liu YZ, Li JL, Li MX, Davies KM, Recker RR, Deng HW 2004 Genome scan for QTLs underlying bone size variation at 10 refined skeletal sites: Genetic heterogeneity and the significance of phenotype refinement. Pysiol Genomics 17: 326331.
  • 12
    Koller DL, White KE, Liu G, Hui SL, Conneally PM, Johnston CC, Econs MJ, Foroud T, Peacock M 2003 Linkage of structure at the proximal femur to chromosomes 3, 7, 8, and 19. J Bone Miner Res 18: 10571065.
  • 13
    Koller DL, Econs MJ, Morin PA, Christian JC, Hui SL, Parry P, Curran ME, Rodriguez LA, Conneally PM, Joslyn G, Peacock M, Johnston CC, Foroud T 2000 Genome screen for QTLs contributing to normal variation in bone mineral density and osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 31163120.
  • 14
    Koller DL, Liu G, Econ MJ, Hui SL, Morin PA, Joslyn G, Rodriguez LA, Conneally PM, Christian JC, Johnston CC 2001 Genome screen for quantitative trait loci underlying normal variation in femoral structure. J Bone Miner Res 16: 985991.
  • 15
    Deng HW, Xu FH, Huang QY, Shen H, Deng H, Conway T, Liu YJ, Liu YZ, Li JL, Zhang HT 2002 A whole-genome linkage scan suggests several genomic regions potentially containing quantitative loci for osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 51515159.
  • 16
    Devoto M, Shimoya K, Caminis J, Ott J, Tnenhouse A, Whyte MP, Sereda L, Hall S, Considine E, Williams CJ 1998 First-stage autosomal genome screen in extended pedigrees suggests genes predisposing to low bone mineral density on chromosomes 1p, 2p and 4q. Eur J Hum Genet 6: 151157.
  • 17
    Devoto M, Specchia C, Li HH, Caminis J, Tenenhouse A, Rodriguez H, Spotila LD 2001 Variance component linkage analysis indicates a QTL for femoral neck bone mineral density on chromosome 1p36. Hum Mol Genet 10: 24472452.
  • 18
    Peacock M, Koller DL, Hui S, Johnson CC, Conneally PM, Foroud T, Econs MJ 2004 Peak bone mineral density at the hip is linked to chromosomes 14q and 15q. Osteoporos Int 15: 489496.
  • 19
    Kammerer CM, Schneider JL, Cole SA, Hixson JE, Samollow PB, O'Connell JR, Perez R, Dyer TD, Almasy L, Blangero J, Bauer RL, Mitchell BD 2003 Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 2p, 4p and 13q influence bone mineral density of the forearm and hip in Mexican Americans. J Bone Miner Res 18: 22452252.
  • 20
    Ralston SH, Galwey N, MacKay I, Albagha O, Cardon L, Compston JE, Cooper C, Duncan E, Keen R, Langdahl B, McLellan A, O'Riordan J, Pols HA, Reid DM, Uitterlinden AG, Wass J, Bennett ST 2005 Loci for regulation of bone mineral density in men and women identified by genome wide linkage scan: The FAMOS study. Hum Mol Genet 14: 943951.
  • 21
    Ioannidis JPA, Ng MY, Sham PC, Zintzaras E, Lewis CM, Deng HW, Econs MJ, Karasik D, Devoto M, Kammerer CM, Spector T, Andrew T, Cupples LA, Duncan EL, Foroud T, Kiel DP, Koller D, Langdahl B, Mitchell BD, Peacock M, Recker R, Shen H, Sol-Church K, Spotilla LD, Uitterlinden AG, Wilson SG, Kung AW, Ralston SH 2007 Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans provides evidence for sex- and site-specific regulation of bone mass. J Bone Miner Res 22: 173183.
  • 22
    Koller DL, Rodriguez LA, Christian JC, Slemenda CW, Econs MJ, Hui SL, Morin P, Conneally PM, Joslyn G, Curran ME, Peacock M, Johnston CC, Foroud T 1998 Linkage of a QTL contributing to normal variation in bone mineral density to chromosome 11q12-13. J Bone Miner Res 13: 19031908.
  • 23
    Xiong DH, Shen H, Xiao P, Guo YF, Long JR, Zhao LJ, Liu YZ, Deng HY, Li JL, Recker RR, Deng HW 2006 Genome-wide scan identified QTLs underlying femoral neck cross-sectional geometry that are novel studied risk factors of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 21: 424437.
  • 24
    Peacock M, Koller DL, Lai D, Hui S, Foroud T, Econs MJ 2005 Sex-specific quantitative trait loci contribute to normal variation in bone structure at the proximal femur in men. Bone 37: 467473.
  • 25
    Wilson SG, Reed PW, Bansal A, Chiano M, Lindersson M, Langdown M, Prince RL, Thompson D, Thompson E, Bailey M, Kleyn PW, Sambrook P, Shi MM, Spector TD 2003 Comarison of genome screens for two independent cohorts provide replication of suggestive linkage of bone mineral density to 3p21 and 1p36. Am J Hum Genet 72: 144155.
  • 26
    Shen H, Long JR, Xiong DH, Guo YF, Xiao P, Liu YZ, Zhao LJ, Liu YJ, Deng HY, Li JL, Recker RR, Deng HW 2006 A genomewide scan for quantitative trait loci underlying area bone size variation in 451 Caucasian families. J Med Genet 43: 872879.
  • 27
    Hsu YH, Xu X, Terwedow HA, Niu T, Hong X, Wu D, Wang L, Brain JD, Bouxsein ML, Cummings SR, Rosen CJ, Xu X 2007 Large-scale genome-wide linkage analysis for loci linked to BMD at different skeletal sites in extreme selected sibships. J Bone Miner Res 22: 184194.
  • 28
    Karasik D, Myers RH, Cupples LA, Hannan MT, Gagnon DR, Herbert A, Kiel DP 2002 Genome screen for quantitative trait loci contributing to normal variation in bone mineral density: The Framingham study. J Bone Miner Res 17: 17181727.
  • 29
    Streeten EA, McBride DJ, Pollin TI, Ryan K, Shapiro J, Ott S, Mitchell BD, Shuldiner AR, O'Connell JR 2006 Quantitative trait loci for BMD identified by autosome-wide linkage scan to chromosomes 7q and 21 in men from the Amish family osteoporosis study. J Bone Miner Res 21: 14331442.
  • 30
    Huang QY, Ng MYM, Cheung CL, Chan V, Sham PC, Kung AWC 2006 Identification of two sex-specific quantitative trait loci in chromosome 11q for hip bone mineral density in Chinese. Hum Hered 61: 237243.
  • 31
    Turner CH, Roeder RK, Wieczorek A, Foroud T, Liu G, Peacock M 2001 Variability in skeletal mass, structure, and biomechanical properties among inbred strains of rats. J Bone Miner Res 16: 15321539.
  • 32
    Sun Q, Turner CH 2003 Two inbred rat strains that differ substantially in hip fragility. Calcif Tissue Int 72: 498504.
  • 33
    Alam I, Sun Q, Liu L, Koller DL, Fishburn T, Carr LG, Econs MJ, Foroud T, Turner CH 2006 Identification of a quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 4 that is strongly linked to femoral neck structure and strength. Bone 39: 9399.
  • 34
    Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg L 1987 MAPMARKER: An interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1: 174181.
  • 35
    Broman KW, Wu H, Sen S, Churchill GA 2003 R/qtl: QTL mapping in experimental crosses. Bioinformatics 19: 889890.
  • 36
    Doerge RW, Churchill GA 1996 Permutation tests for multiple loci affecting a quantitative character. Genetics 142: 285294.
  • 37
    Basten CJ, Weir BS, Zeng ZB, 1994 Zmap-a QTL cartographer. In: Smith C, Gavora JS, Chesnais BBJ, Fairfull W, Gibson JP, Kennedy BW, Burnside EB (eds.) Computing Strategies and Software. 5th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Ontario, Canada, 6566.
  • 38
    Solberg LC, Baum AE, Ahmadiyeh N, Shimomura K, Li R, Turek FW, Churchill GA, Takahashi JS, Redei EE 2004 Sex- and lineage-specific inheritance of depression-like behavior in the rat. Mamm Genome 15: 648662.