SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A 2007 Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005–2025. J Bone Miner Res 22: 465475.
  • 2
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, Genant HK, Palermo L, Scott J, Vogt TM 1993 Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 341: 7275.
  • 3
    Schott AM, Cormier C, Hans D, Favier F, Hausherr E, Dargent-Molina P, Delmas PD, Ribot C, Sebert JL, Breart G, Meunier PJ 1998 How hip and whole-body bone mineral density predict hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS Prospective Study. Osteoporos Int 8: 247254.
  • 4
    De Laet C, Van Hout B, Burger H, Weel A, Hofman A, Pols H 1998 Hip fracture prediction in elderly men and women: Validation in the Rotterdam study. J Bone Miner Res 13: 15871593.
  • 5
    Cummings SR, Cawthon PM, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Fink HA, Orwoll ES 2006 BMD and risk of hip and nonvertebral fractures in older men: A prospective study and comparison with older women. J Bone Miner Res 21: 15501556.
  • 6
    Siris ES, Chen YT, Abbott TA, Barrett-Connor E, Miller PD, Wehren LE, Berger ML 2004 Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures. Arch Intern Med 164: 11081112.
  • 7
    Wainwright SA, Marshall LM, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Black DM, Hillier TA, Hochberg MC, Vogt MT, Orwoll ES Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 2005 Hip Fracture in Women without Osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 27872793.
  • 8
    Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD 2003 Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res 18: 10511056.
  • 9
    Bousson V, Le Bras A, Roqueplan F, Kang Y, Mitton D, Kolta S, Bergot C, Skalli W, Vicaut E, Kalender W, Engelke K, Laredo JD 2006 Volumetric quantitative computed tomography of the proximal femur: Relationships linking geometric and densitometric variables to bone strength. Role for compact bone. Osteoporos Int 17: 855864.
  • 10
    Faulkner KG, Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Pressman A, Jergas M, Genant HK 1995 Hip axis length and osteoporotic fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 10: 506508.
  • 11
    Gluer CC, Cummings SR, Pressman A, Li J, Gluer K, Faulkner KG, Grampp S, Genant HK 1994 Prediction of hip fractures from pelvic radiographs: The study of osteoporotic fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 9: 671677.
  • 12
    Beck TJ 2007 Extending DXA beyond bone mineral density: Understanding hip structure analysis. Curr Osteoporos Rep 5: 4955.
  • 13
    Blank JB, Cawthon PM, Carrion-Petersen ML, Harper L, Johnson JP, Mitson E, Delay RR 2005 Overview of recruitment for the osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS). Contemp Clin Trials 26: 557568.
  • 14
    Orwoll E, Blank JB, Barrett-Connor E, Cauley J, Cummings S, Ensrud K, Lewis C, Cawthon PM, Marcus R, Marshall LM, McGowan J, Phipps K, Sherman S, Stefanick ML, Stone K 2005 Design and baseline characteristics of the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study–a large observational study of the determinants of fracture in older men. Contemp Clin Trials 26: 569585.
  • 15
    Lang TF, Leblanc AD, Evans HJ, Lu Y 2006 Adaptation of the proximal femur to skeletal reloading after long-duration spaceflight. J Bone Miner Res 21: 12241230.
  • 16
    Cheng X, Li J, Lu Y, Keyak J, Lang T 2007 Proximal femoral density and geometry measurements by quantitative computed tomography: Association with hip fracture. Bone 40: 169174.
  • 17
    Li W, Sode M, Saeed I, Lang T 2006 Automated registration of hip and spine for longitudinal QCT studies: Integration with 3D densitometric and structural analysis. Bone 38: 273279.
  • 18
    Collett D 1994 Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, 1st ed. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
  • 19
    Vittinghoff E, Glidden DV, Shiboski SC, McCulloch CE 2005 Regression Methods in Biostatistics: Linear, Logistic, Survival, and Repeated Measures Models. Springer, New York, NY, USA.
  • 20
    Szulc P 2006 Bone density, geometry, and fracture in elderly men. Curr Osteoporos Rep 4: 5763.
  • 21
    Pulkkinen P, Partanen J, Jalovaara P, Jamsa T 2004 Combination of bone mineral density and upper femur geometry improves the prediction of hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 15: 274280.
  • 22
    Mayhew PM, Thomas CD, Clement JG, Loveridge N, Beck TJ, Bonfield W, Burgoyne CJ, Reeve J 2005 Relation between age, femoral neck cortical stability, and hip fracture risk. Lancet 366: 129135.
  • 23
    Bell KL, Loveridge N, Power J, Garrahan N, Stanton M, Lunt M, Meggitt BF, Reeve J 1999 Structure of the femoral neck in hip fracture: Cortical bone loss in the inferoanterior to superoposterior axis. J Bone Miner Res 14: 111119.
  • 24
    Szulc P, Duboeuf F, Schott AM, Dargent-Molina P, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 2006 Structural determinants of hip fracture in elderly women: Re-analysis of the data from the EPIDOS study. Osteoporos Int 17: 231236.
  • 25
    Van Rietbergen B, Huiskes R, Eckstein F, Ruegsegger P 2003 Trabecular bone tissue strains in the healthy and osteoporotic human femur. J Bone Miner Res 18: 17811788.
  • 26
    Mayhew P, Kaptoge S, Loveridge N, Power J, Kroger HP, Parker M, Reeve J 2004 Discrimination between cases of hip fracture and controls is improved by hip structural analysis compared to areal bone mineral density. An ex vivo study of the femoral neck. Bone 34: 352361.
  • 27
    Karlamangla AS, Barrett-Connor E, Young J, Greendale GA 2004 Hip fracture risk assessment using composite indices of femoral neck strength: The Rancho Bernardo study. Osteoporos Int 15: 6270.
  • 28
    Keaveny TM, Donley DW, Hoffmann PF, Mitlak BH, Glass EV, San Martin JA 2007 Effects of teriparatide and alendronate on vertebral strength as assessed by finite element modeling of QCT scans in women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 22: 149157.
  • 29
    Keyak JH, Kaneko TS, Rossi SA, Pejcic MR, Tehranzadeh J, Skinner HB 2005 Predicting the strength of femoral shafts with and without metastatic lesions. Clin Orthop 439: 161170.
  • 30
    Bouxsein ML, Karasik D 2006 Bone geometry and skeletal fragility. Curr Osteoporos Rep 4: 4956.
  • 31
    Ahlborg HG, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV, Center JR, Eisman JA 2005 Contribution of hip strength indices to hip fracture risk in elderly men and women. J Bone Miner Res 20: 18201827.
  • 32
    Rivadeneira F, Zillikens MC, De Laet CE, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Beck TJ, Pols HA 2007 Femoral neck BMD is a strong predictor of hip fracture susceptibility in elderly men and women because it detects cortical bone instability: The Rotterdam Study. J Bone Miner Res 22: 17811790.
  • 33
    Uusi-Rasi K, Sievanen H, Heinonen A, Vuori I, Beck TJ, Kannus P 2006 Long-term recreational gymnastics provides a clear benefit in age-related functional decline and bone loss. A prospective 6-year study. Osteoporos Int 17: 11541164.
  • 34
    Lang TF, Keyak JH, Heitz MW, Augat P, Lu Y, Mathur A, Genant HK 1997 Volumetric quantitative computed tomography of the proximal femur: Precision and relation to bone strength. Bone 21: 101108.
  • 35
    Bauer JS, Kohlmann S, Eckstein F, Mueller D, Lochmuller EM, Link TM 2006 Structural analysis of trabecular bone of the proximal femur using multislice computed tomography: A comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry for predicting biomechanical strength in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 78: 7889.
  • 36
    Szulc P, Munoz F, Duboeuf F, Marchand F, Delmas PD 2006 Low width of tubular bones is associated with increased risk of fragility fracture in elderly men–the MINOS study. Bone 38: 595602.
  • 37
    Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN 1996 Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. Am J Epidemiol 144: 258261.
  • 38
    Black DM, Greenspan SL, Ensrud KE, Palermo L, McGowan JA, Lang TF, Garnero P, Bouxsein ML, Bilezikian JP, Rosen CJ 2003 The effects of parathyroid hormone and alendronate alone or in combination in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 349: 12071215.
  • 39
    Finkelstein JS, Hayes A, Hunzelman JL, Wyland JJ, Lee H, Neer RM 2003 The effects of parathyroid hormone, alendronate, or both in men with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 349: 12161226.
  • 40
    Zanchetta JR, Bogado CE, Ferretti JL, Wang O, Wilson MG, Sato M, Gaich GA, Dalsky GP, Myers SL 2003 Effects of teriparatide [recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1–34)] on cortical bone in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 18: 539543.
  • 41
    Rehman Q, Lang T, Modin G, Lane NE 2002 Quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine, not dual x-ray absorptiometry, is an independent predictor of prevalent vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia receiving long-term glucocorticoid and hormone-replacement therapy. Arthritis Rheum 46: 12921297.
  • 42
    Marshall LM, Lang TF, Lambert LC, Zmuda JM, Ensrud KE, Orwoll ES 2006 Dimensions and volumetric BMD of the proximal femur and their relation to age among older U.S. men. J Bone Miner Res 21: 11971206.