• 1
    Teucher B, Fairweather-Tait S 2003 Dietary sodium as a risk factor for osteoporosis: Where is the evidence? Proc Nutr Soc 62: 859866.
  • 2
    Zarkadas M, Gougeon-Reyburn R, Marliss EB, Block E, Alton-Mackey M 1989 Sodium chloride supplementation and urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 50: 10881094.
  • 3
    Lemann J Jr, Adams ND, Gray RW 1979 Urinary calcium excretion in human beings. N Engl J Med 301: 535541.
  • 4
    Lemann J Jr, Pleuss JA, Gray RW, Hoffmann RG 1991 Potassium administration reduces and potassium deprivation increases urinary calcium excretion in healthy adults. Kidney Int 39: 973983.
  • 5
    Sellmeyer DE, Schloetter M, Sebastian A 2002 Potassium citrate prevents increased urine calcium excretion and bone resorption induced by a high sodium chloride diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 20082012.
  • 6
    Ginty F, Flynn A, Cashman KD 1998 The effect of dietary sodium intake on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in young women. Br J Nutr 79: 343350.
  • 7
    Devine A, Criddle RA, Dick IM, Kerr DA, Prince RL 1995 A longitudinal study of the effect of sodium and calcium intakes on regional bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 62: 740745.
  • 8
    Food Standards Agency 2002 McCance & Widdowson's Composition of Foods, 6th ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • 9
    Colwell A, Russell RG, Eastell R 1993 Factors affecting the assay of urinary 3-hydroxy pyridinium crosslinks of collagen as markers of bone resorption. Eur J Clin Invest 23: 341349.
  • 10
    Calabresi E, Lasagni L, Franceschelli F, de Leonardis V, Becorpi A, Serio M, Brandi ML 1994 Comparison of immuno- and HPLC-assays for the measurement of urinary collagen cross-links. J Endocrinol Invest 17: 625629.
  • 11
    Robins SP, Stead DA, Duncan A 1994 Precautions in suing an internal standard to measure pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline in urine. Clin Chem 40: 23222323.
  • 12
    Lopez-Huertas E, Teucher B, Boza JJ, Martinez-Ferez A, Majsak-Newman G, Baro L, Carrero JJ, Gonzalez-Santiago M, Fonolla J, Fairweather-Tait S 2006 Absorption of calcium from milks enriched with fructo-oligosaccharides, caaseinophosphopeptides, tricalcium phosphate, and milk solids. Am J Clin Nutr 83: 310316.
  • 13
    Harrington M, Bennett T, Jakobsen J, Ovesen L, Brot C, Flynn A, Cashman KD 2004 The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and its interaction with vitamin D receptor genotype. Br J Nutr 91: 4151.
  • 14
    Neer R, Berman M, Fisher L, Rosenberg LE 1967 Multicompartmental analysis of calcium kinetics in normal adult males. J Clin Invest 46: 13641379.
  • 15
    Wastney ME, Martin BR, Peacock M, Smith D, Jiang X-Y, Jackman LA, Weaver CM 2000 Changes in calcium kinetics in adolescent girls induced by high calcium intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 44704475.
  • 16
    R Development Core Team 2003 R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 2.4.1. Available at
  • 17
    Department of Health 1991 Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, London, United Kingdom.
  • 18
    Henderson L, Irving K, Gregory J 2003 The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years, Volume 3 The Stationery Office, London, United Kingdom.
  • 19
    McKane WR, Khosla S, Egan KS, Robins SP, Burritt MF, Riggs BL 1996 Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 16991703.
  • 20
    Nakamura K, Nashimoto M, Yamamoto M 2000 Summer/winter differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone levels of Japanese women. Int J Biometeorol 44: 186189.
  • 21
    O'Brien KO, Abrams SA, Liang LK, Ellis KJ, Gagle RF 1998 Bone turnover response to changes in calcium intake is altered in girls and adult women in families with histories of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 13: 491499.
  • 22
    Cohen AJ, Roe FJ 2000 Review of risk factors for osteoporosis with particular reference to a possible aetiological role of dietary salt. Food Chem Toxicol 38: 237253.
  • 23
    Castenmiller JJ, Mensink RP, van der Heijden L, Kouwenhoven T, Hautvast JG, de Leeuw PW, Schaafsma G 1985 The effect of dietary sodium on urinary calcium and potassium excretion in normotensive men with different calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 5260.
  • 24
    Sabto J, Powell MJ, Breidahl MJ, Gurr FW 1984 Influence of urinary sodium on calcium excretion in normal individuals. A redefinition of hypercalciuria. Med J Aust 140: 354356.
  • 25
    Nordin BE, Need AG, Morris HA, Horowitz M 1993 The nature and significance of the relationship between urinary sodium and urinary calcium in women. J Nutr 123: 16151622.
  • 26
    Jones G, Beard T, Parameswaran V, Greenaway T, von Witt R 1997 A population-based study of the relationship between salt intake, bone resorption and bone mass. Eur J Clin Nutr 51: 561565.
  • 27
    Shortt C, Madden A, Flynn A, Morrissey PA 1988 Influence of dietary sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion in selected Irish individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 42: 595603.
  • 28
    McCarron DA, Rankin LI, Bennett WM, Krutzik S, McClung MR, Luft FC 1981 Urinary calcium excretion at extremes of sodium intake in normal man. Am J Nephrol 1: 8490.
  • 29
    Leitz G, Avenell A, Robins SP 1997 Short-term effects of dietary sodium intake on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women measured using urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Br J Nutr 78: 7382.
  • 30
    Lin PH, Ginty F, Appel LJ, Aickin M, Bohannon A, Garnero P, Barclay D, Svetkey LP 2003 The DASH diet and sodium reduction improve markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism in adults. J Nutr 133: 31303136.
  • 31
    Heaney RP, Recker RR, Stegman MR, Moy AJ 1989 Calcium absorption in women: Relationships to calcium intake, estrogen status, and age. J Bone Miner Res 4: 469475.
  • 32
    Delmas PD, Eastell R, Garnero P, Seibel MJ, Stepan J for the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the International Osteoporosis Foundation 2000 The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 6(suppl): S2S17.
  • 33
    Carbone LD, Barrow KD, Bush AJ, Boatright MD, Michelson JA, Pitts KA, Pintea VN, Kang AH, Watsky MA 2005 Effects of a low sodium diet on bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Metab 23: 506513.
  • 34
    Natri A-M, Karkkainen MUM, Ruusunen M, Puolanne E, Lamberg-Allardt C 2005 A 7-week reduction in salt intake does not contribute to markers of bone metabolism in young healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59: 311317.