SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Woolf AD 2006 The global perspective of osteoporosis: The ILAR lecture, June 2004, Berlin. Clin Rheumatol 25: 613618.
  • 2
    Gullberg B, Johnell O, Kanis JA 1997 World-wide projections for hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 7: 407413.
  • 3
    Dennison E, Cooper C 2000 Epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures. Horm Res 54: 5863.
  • 4
    Melton LJ III, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, Lane AW, Riggs BL 1992 Perspective. How many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 7: 10051010.
  • 5
    Greendale GA, Barrett-Connor E, Ingles S, Haile R 1995 Late physical and functional effects of osteoporotic fracture in women: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 43: 955961.
  • 6
    Browner WS, Pressman AR, Nevitt MC, Cummings SR 1996 Mortality following fractures in older women. The study of osteoporotic fractures. Arch Intern Med 156: 15211525.
  • 7
    Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Ensrud KC, Scott JC, Black D 2000 Risk of mortality following clinical fractures. Osteoporos Int 11: 556561.
  • 8
    Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A 2007 Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005-2025. J Bone Miner Res 22: 465475.
  • 9
    Manolagas SC 2000 Birth and death of bone cells: Basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 21: 115137.
  • 10
    Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R 2006 Estrogen deficiency and bone loss: An inflammatory tale. J Clin Invest 116: 11861194.
  • 11
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ III 2002 Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocr Rev 23: 279302.
  • 12
    Kleerekoper M 2006 Osteoporosis prevention and therapy: Preserving and building strength through bone quality. Osteoporos Int 17: 17071715.
  • 13
    Seeman E 2007 Is a change in bone mineral density a sensitive and specific surrogate of anti-fracture efficacy? Bone 41: 308317.
  • 14
    North American Menopause Society 2006 Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2006 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause 13: 340367.
  • 15
    Ronkin S, Northington R, Baracat E, Nunes MG, Archer DF, Constantine G, Pickar JH 2005 Endometrial effects of bazedoxifene acetate, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 105: 13971404.
  • 16
    Komm BS, Kharode YP, Bodine PV, Harris HA, Miller CP, Lyttle CR 2005 Bazedoxifene acetate: A selective estrogen receptor modulator with improved selectivity. Endocrinology 146: 39994008.
  • 17
    Komm BS, Lyttle CR 2001 Developing a SERM: Stringent preclinical selection criteria leading to an acceptable candidate (WAY-140424) for clinical evaluation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 949: 317326.
  • 18
    Miller PD, Chines AA, Christiansen C, Hoeck HC, Kendler DL, Lewiecki EM, Woodson G, Levine AB, Constantine G, Delmas PD 2008 Effects of bazedoxifene on BMD and bone turnover in postmenopausal women: 2-yr results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 23: 525535.
  • 19
    Genant HK, Jergas M, Palermo L, Nevitt M, Valentin RS, Black D, Cummings SR, for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1996 Comparison of semiquantitative visual and quantitative morphometric assessment of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11: 984996.
  • 20
    Chesnut CH III, Skag A, Christiansen C, Recker R, Stakkestad JA, Hoiseth A, Felsenberg D, Huss H, Gilbride J, Schimmer RC, Delmas PD 2004 Effects of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 19: 12411249.
  • 21
    Black DM, Arden NK, Palermo L, Pearson J, Cummings SR, for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1999 Prevalent vertebral deformities predict hip fractures and new vertebral deformities but not wrist fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14: 821828.
  • 22
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE 1996 Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 348: 15351541.
  • 23
    Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Broll J, Minne HW, Quan H, Bell NH, Rodriguez-Portales J, Downs RW Jr, Dequeker J, Favus M, for the Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group 1995 Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 333: 14371443.
  • 24
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, Applegate WB, Barrett-Connor E, Musliner TA, Palermo L, Prineas R, Rubin SM, Scott JC, Vogt T, Wallace R, Yates AJ, LaCroix AZ 1998 Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: Results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA 280: 20772082.
  • 25
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, Knickerbocker RK, Nickelsen T, Genant HK, Christiansen C, Delmas PD, Zanchetta JR, Stakkestad J, Gluer CC, Krueger K, Cohen FJ, Eckert S, Ensrud KE, Avioli LV, Lips P, Cummings SR, for the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators 1999 Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: Results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA 282: 637645.
  • 26
    Kanis JA, on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group 2008 Assessment of Osteoporosis at the Primary Health Care Level. World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, Sheffield, UK.
  • 27
    World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases FRAX™ WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. Available at: http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/. Accessed March 1, 2008.
  • 28
    McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, Zippel H, Bensen WG, Roux C, Adami S, Fogelman I, Diamond T, Eastell R, Meunier PJ, Wasnich RD, Greenwald M, Kaufman J-M, Chesnut CH, Reginster J-Y 2001 Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. N Engl J Med 344: 333340.
  • 29
    Hosking D, Chilvers CE, Christiansen C, Ravn P, Wasnich R, Ross P, McClung M, Balske A, Thompson D, Daley M, Yates AJ, for the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group 1998 Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. N Engl J Med 338: 485492.
  • 30
    Watts NB, Cooper C, Lindsay R, Eastell R, Manhart MD, Barton IP, van Staa TP, Adachi JD 2004 Relationship between changes in bone mineral density and vertebral fracture risk associated with risedronate: Greater increases in bone mineral density do not relate to greater decreases in fracture risk. J Clin Densitom 7: 255261.
  • 31
    Miller PD 2005 Bone density and markers of bone turnover in predicting fracture risk and how changes in these measures predict fracture risk reduction. Curr Osteoporos Rep 3: 103110.
  • 32
    Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD 2003 Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res 18: 10511056.
  • 33
    Sarkar S, Mitlak BH, Wong M, Stock JL, Black DM, Harper KD 2002 Relationships between bone mineral density and incident vertebral fracture risk with raloxifene therapy. J Bone Miner Res 17: 110.
  • 34
    Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ, Black DM 2002 Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med 112: 281289.
  • 35
    Melton LJ III, Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL 1997 Relationship of bone turnover to bone density and fractures. J Bone Miner Res 12: 10831091.
  • 36
    Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, Norton L, Nickelsen T, Bjarnason NH, Morrow M, Lippman ME, Black D, Glusman JE, Costa A, Jordan VC 1999 The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA 281: 21892197.
  • 37
    Grady D, Ettinger B, Moscarelli E, Plouffe L Jr, Sarkar S, Ciaccia A, Cummings S 2004 Safety and adverse effects associated with raloxifene: Multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation. Obstet Gynecol 104: 837844.
  • 38
    Reginster J, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML, Lund B, Ethgen D, Pack S, Roumagnac I, Eastell R, on behalf of the Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group 2000 Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 11: 8391.
  • 39
    Carlson RV, Boyd KM, Webb DJ 2004 The revision of the Declaration of Helsinki: Past, present and future. Br J Clin Pharmacol 57: 695713.