• 1
    Stepnick LS 2004 The frequency of bone disease. In: MacGowan JALGR, Noonan AS, Elderkin AL (eds). Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of Surgeon General Washington, DC, USA, 6887.
  • 2
    Shoback D 2007 Update in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92: 747753.
  • 3
    Beighton P 1988 Sclerosteosis. J Med Genet 25: 200203.
  • 4
    Hamersma H, Gardner J, Beighton P 2003 The natural history of sclerosteosis. Clin Genet 63: 192197.
  • 5
    Brunkow ME, Gardner JC, Van Ness J, Paeper BW, Kovacevich BR, Proll S, Skonier JE, Zhao L, Sabo PJ, Fu Y, Alisch RS, Gillett L, Colbert T, Tacconi P, Galas D, Hamersma H, Beighton P, Mulligan J 2001 Bone dysplasia sclerosteosis results from loss of the SOST gene product, a novel cystine knot-containing protein. Am J Hum Genet 68: 577589.
  • 6
    Balemans W, Ebeling M, Patel N, Van Hul E, Olson P, Dioszegi M, Lacza C, Wuyts W, Van Den Ende J, Willems P, Paes-Alves AF, Hill S, Bueno M, Ramos FJ, Tacconi P, Dikkers FG, Stratakis C, Lindpaintner K, Vickery B, Foernzler D, Van Hul W 2001 Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST). Hum Mol Genet 10: 537543.
  • 7
    Stein SA, Witkop C, Hill S, Fallon MD, Viernstein L, Gucer G, McKeever P, Long D, Altman J, Miller NR, Teitelbaum SL, Schlesinger S 1983 Sclerosteosis: Neurogenetic and pathophysiologic analysis of an American kinship. Neurology 33: 267277.
  • 8
    Winkler DG, Sutherland MK, Geoghegan JC, Yu C, Hayes T, Skonier JE, Shpektor D, Jonas M, Kovacevich BR, Staehling-Hampton K, Appleby M, Brunkow ME, Latham JA 2003 Osteocyte control of bone formation via sclerostin, a novel BMP antagonist. EMBO J 22: 62676276.
  • 9
    van Bezooijen RL, Roelen BA, Visser A, van der Wee-Pals L, de Wilt E, Karperien M, Hamersma H, Papapoulos SE, ten Dijke P, Lowik CW 2004 Sclerostin is an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, but not a classical BMP antagonist. J Exp Med 199: 805814.
  • 10
    Poole KE, van Bezooijen RL, Loveridge N, Hamersma H, Papapoulos SE, Lowik CW, Reeve J 2005 Sclerostin is a delayed secreted product of osteocytes that inhibits bone formation. FASEB J 19: 18421844.
  • 11
    Li X, Ominsky MS, Niu QT, Sun N, Daugherty B, D'Agostin D, Kurahara C, Gao Y, Cao J, Gong J, Asuncion F, Barrero M, Warmington K, Dwyer D, Stolina M, Morony S, Sarosi I, Kostenuik PJ, Lacey DL, Simonet WS, Ke HZ, Paszty C 2008 Targeted deletion of the sclerostin gene in mice results in increased bone formation and bone strength*. J Bone Miner Res 23: 860869.
  • 12
    Kalu DN 1991 The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Bone Miner 15: 175191.
  • 13
    Frost HM, Jee WS 1992 On the rat model of human osteopenias and osteoporoses. Bone Miner 18: 227236.
  • 14
    Office of Freedom of Information 1994 Guidelines for Preclinical and Clinical Evaluation of Agents Used in the Prevention or Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, USA.
  • 15
    Black LJ, Sato M, Rowley ER, Magee DE, Bekele A, Williams DC, Cullinan GJ, Bendele R, Kauffman RF, Bensch WR, Frolik CA, Termine JD, Bryant HU 1994 Raloxifene (LY139481 HCI) prevents bone loss and reduces serum cholesterol without causing uterine hypertrophy in ovariectomized rats. J Clin Invest 93: 6369.
  • 16
    Sato M, McClintock C, Kim J, Turner CH, Bryant HU, Magee D, Slemenda CW 1994 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of raloxifene effects on the lumbar vertebrae and femora of ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 9: 715724.
  • 17
    Sato M, Bryant HU, Iversen P, Helterbrand J, Smietana F, Bemis K, Higgs R, Turner CH, Owan I, Takano Y, Burr DB 1996 Advantages of raloxifene over alendronate or estrogen on nonreproductive and reproductive tissues in the long-term dosing of ovariectomized rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 279: 298305.
  • 18
    Gasser JA, Ingold P, Venturiere A, Shen V, Green JR 2008 Long-term protective effects of zoledronic acid on cancellous and cortical bone in the ovariectomized rat. J Bone Miner Res 23: 544551.
  • 19
    Brouwers JE, Lambers FM, Gasser JA, van Rietbergen B, Huiskes R 2008 Bone degeneration and recovery after early and late bisphosphonate treatment of ovariectomized wistar rats assessed by in vivo micro-computed tomography. Calcif Tissue Int 82: 202211.
  • 20
    Li X, Takahashi M, Kushida K, Inoue T 1998 The preventive and interventional effects of raloxifene analog (LY117018 HCL) on osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 13: 10051010.
  • 21
    Mosekilde L, Danielsen CC, Sogaard CH, McOsker JE, Wronski TJ 1995 The anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical bone mass, dimensions and strength-assessed in a sexually mature, ovariectomized rat model. Bone 16: 223230.
  • 22
    Li M, Mosekilde L, Sogaard CH, Thomsen JS, Wronski TJ 1995 Parathyroid hormone monotherapy and cotherapy with antiresorptive agents restore vertebral bone mass and strength in aged ovariectomized rats. Bone 16: 629635.
  • 23
    Smith E, Redman RA, Logg CR, Coetzee GA, Kasahara N, Frenkel B 2000 Glucocorticoids inhibit developmental stage-specific osteoblast cell cycle. Dissociation of cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 from E2F4-p130 complexes. J Biol Chem 275: 1999220001.
  • 24
    Kostenuik PJ, Capparelli C, Morony S, Adamu S, Shimamoto G, Shen V, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR 2001 OPG and PTH-(1–34) have additive effects on bone density and mechanical strength in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 142: 42954304.
  • 25
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry: Standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2: 595610.
  • 26
    Turner RT, Wakley GK, Hannon KS 1990 Differential effects of androgens on cortical bone histomorphometry in gonadectomized male and female rats. J Orthop Res 8: 612617.
  • 27
    Sudo H, Kodama HA, Amagai Y, Yamamoto S, Kasai S 1983 In vitro differentiation and calcification in a new clonal osteogenic cell line derived from newborn mouse calvaria. J Cell Biol 96: 191198.
  • 28
    Barth RW, Williams JL, Kaplan FS 1992 Osteon morphometry in females with femoral neck fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 283: 178186.
  • 29
    Bell KL, Loveridge N, Power J, Garrahan N, Meggitt BF, Reeve J 1999 Regional differences in cortical porosity in the fractured femoral neck. Bone 24: 5764.
  • 30
    Wachter NJ, Krischak GD, Mentzel M, Sarkar MR, Ebinger T, Kinzl L, Claes L, Augat P 2002 Correlation of bone mineral density with strength and microstructural parameters of cortical bone in vitro. Bone 31: 9095.
  • 31
    Boutroy S, Van Rietbergen B, Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD 2008 Finite element analysis based on in vivo HR-pQCT images of the distal radius is associated with wrist fracture in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 23: 392399.
  • 32
    Cowin SC, Moss-Salentijn L, Moss ML 1991 Candidates for the mechanosensory system in bone. J Biomech Eng 113: 191197.
  • 33
    Lanyon LE 1993 Osteocytes, strain detection, bone modeling and remodeling. Calcif Tissue Int 53 (Suppl 1): S102S106.
  • 34
    Marotti G 1996 The structure of bone tissues and the cellular control of their deposition. Ital J Anat Embryol 101: 2579.
  • 35
    Martin RB 2000 Toward a unifying theory of bone remodeling. Bone 26: 16.
  • 36
    Baron R, Rawadi G 2007 Targeting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway to regulate bone formation in the adult skeleton. Endocrinology 148: 26352643.
  • 37
    Semenov M, Tamai K, He X 2005 SOST is a ligand for LRP5/LRP6 and a Wnt signaling inhibitor. J Biol Chem 280: 2677026775.
  • 38
    Li X, Zhang Y, Kang H, Liu W, Liu P, Zhang J, Harris SE, Wu D 2005 Sclerostin binds to LRP5/6 and antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem 280: 1988319887.
  • 39
    Ellies DL, Viviano B, McCarthy J, Rey JP, Itasaki N, Saunders S, Krumlauf R 2006 Bone density ligand, Sclerostin, directly interacts with LRP5 but not LRP5G171V to modulate Wnt activity. J Bone Miner Res 21: 17381749.
  • 40
    Semenov MV, He X 2006 LRP5 Mutations Linked to High Bone Mass Diseases Cause Reduced LRP5 Binding and Inhibition by SOST. J Biol Chem 281: 3827638284.
  • 41
    van Bezooijen RL, Svensson JP, Eefting D, Visser A, van der Horst G, Karperien M, Quax PH, Vrieling H, Papapoulos SE, ten Dijke P, Lowik CW 2007 Wnt but not BMP signaling is involved in the inhibitory action of sclerostin on BMP-stimulated bone formation. J Bone Miner Res 22: 1928.
  • 42
    Gordon MD, Nusse R 2006 Wnt signaling: Multiple pathways, multiple receptors, and multiple transcription factors. J Biol Chem 281: 2242922433.
  • 43
    Padhi D, Stouch B, Jang G, Fang L, Darling M, Glise H, Robinson M, Harris S, Posvar E 2007 Anti-sclerostin antibody increases markers of bone formation in healthy postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 22: S1 ; S37.