SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA 1997 Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: A 12-year prospective study. Am J Public Health 87: 992997.
  • 2
    Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Hale CA, Bendich A 2003 Calcium absorption varies within the reference range for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Am Coll Nutr 22: 142146.
  • 3
    Heaney RP, Barger-Lux MJ, Dowell MS, Chen TC, Holick MF 1997 Calcium absorptive effects of vitamin D and its major metabolites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 41114116.
  • 4
    Steingrimsdottir L, Gunnarsson O, Indridason OS, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G 2005 Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. JAMA 294: 23362341.
  • 5
    Loro ML, Sayre J, Roe TF, Goran MI, Kaufman FR, Gilsanz V 2000 Early identification of children predisposed to low peak bone mass and osteoporosis later in life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 39083918.
  • 6
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM 1995 Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332: 767773.
  • 7
    National Center for Health Statistics 1996 Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994. Vital Health Stat 1: 941308.
  • 8
    Wahner HW, Looker A, Dunn WL, Walters LC, Hauser MF, Novak C 1994 Quality control of bone densitometry in a national health survey (NHANES III) using three mobile examination centers.PG - 951-60. J Bone Miner Res 9: 951960.
  • 9
    Looker AC, Johnston CC, Jr ., Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Lindsay RL 1995 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. women from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 10: 796802.
  • 10
    Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE 1985 Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122: 5165.
  • 11
    Willett CW 1998 Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  • 12
    Gunter EW, Lewis BL, Konkikowski SM 1996 Laboratory Methods Used for the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988–1994 (CD-ROM). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA.
  • 13
    Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R 2005 Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16: 713716.
  • 14
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B 2005 Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293: 22572264.
  • 15
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B 1999 Smoking increases bone loss and decreases intestinal calcium absorption. J Bone Miner Res 14: 215220.
  • 16
    Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP 2005 Calcium absorptive efficiency is positively related to body size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 51185120.
  • 17
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B 1995 Oestrogen effects on calcitriol levels in post-menopausal women: A comparison of oral versus transdermal administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 43: 219224.
  • 18
    Nelson KM, Reiber G, Boyko EJ 2002 Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: Findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). Diabetes Care 25: 17221728.
  • 19
    Rosner B 2000 Measurement Error Methods. Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 5th ed. PWS-Kent, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 20
    Spiegelman D, McDermott A, Rosner B 1997 Regression calibration method for correcting measurement-error bias in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 65 (Suppl): 1179S1186S.
  • 21
    Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR 2002 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30: 771777.
  • 22
    Blumsohn A, Herrington K, Hannon RA, Shao P, Eyre DR, Eastell R 1994 The effect of calcium supplementation on the circadian rhythm of bone resorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79: 730735.
  • 23
    Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, Zytaruk N, Robinson V, Griffith L, Ortiz Z, Peterson J, Adachi J, Tugwell P, Guyatt G 2002 Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23: 552559.
  • 24
    Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, Zytaruk N, Robinson V, Griffith L, Hamel C, Ortiz Z, Peterson J, Adachi J, Tugwell P, Guyatt G 2004 Calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD004526.
  • 25
    Reid IR, Mason B, Horne A, Ames R, Reid HE, Bava U, Bolland MJ, Gamble GD 2006 Randomized controlled trial of calcium in healthy older women. Am J Med 119: 777785.
  • 26
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Rees JR, Grau MV, Barry E, Gui J, Baron JA 2008 Effect of calcium supplementation on fracture risk: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 87: 19451951.
  • 27
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Burckhardt P, Li R, Spiegelman D, Specker B, Orav JE, Wong JB, Staehelin HB, O'Reilly E, Kiel DP, Willett WC 2007 Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 17801790.
  • 28
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Staehelin HB, Willett CW 2007 Calcium intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 17801790.
  • 29
    Riggs BL, O'Fallon WM, Muhs J, O'Connor MK, Kumar R, Melton LJ, 3rd 1998 Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on serum parathyroid hormone level, bone turnover, and bone loss in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 13: 168174.
  • 30
    Prince RL, Devine A, Dhaliwal SS, Dick IM 2006 Effects of calcium supplementation on clinical fracture and bone structure: Results of a 5-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in elderly women. Arch Intern Med 166: 869875.
  • 31
    Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA 2005 Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365: 16211628.
  • 32
    Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ 1992 Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 327: 16371642.
  • 33
    Heaney RP, Nordin BE 2002 Calcium effects on phosphorus absorption: Implications for the prevention and co-therapy of osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 21: 239244.
  • 34
    Chen TC, Persons K, Liu WW, Chen ML, Holick MF 1995 The antiproliferative and differentiative activities of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are potentiated by epidermal growth factor and attenuated by insulin in cultured human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 104: 113117.
  • 35
    Heaney RP 2004 Phosphorus nutrition and the treatment of osteoporosis. Mayo Clin Proc 79: 9197.
  • 36
    Raisz LG, Niemann I 1969 Effect of phosphate, calcium and magnesium on bone resorption and hormonal responses in tissue culture. Endocrinology 85: 446452.
  • 37
    Lotz M 1968 The diagnostic importance of hypophosphatemia. Med Times 96: 11661168.
  • 38
    Nordin BE, Need AG, Morris HA, O'Loughlin PD, Horowitz M 2004 Effect of age on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 80: 9981002.
  • 39
    Heaney RP, Recker RR, Stegman MR, Moy AJ 1989 Calcium absorption in women: Relationships to calcium intake, estrogen status, and age. J Bone Miner Res 4: 469475.
  • 40
    Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Lanspa SJ, Healy JC, DeLuca HF 1995 An investigation of sources of variation in calcium absorption efficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 406411.
  • 41
    Dick IM, Devine A, Beilby J, Prince RL 2005 Effects of endogenous estrogen on renal calcium and phosphate handling in elderly women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E430E435.
  • 42
    Van Cromphaut SJ, Rummens K, Stockmans I, Van Herck E, Dijcks FA, Ederveen AG, Carmeliet P, Verhaeghe J, Bouillon R, Carmeliet G 2003 Intestinal calcium transporter genes are upregulated by estrogens and the reproductive cycle through vitamin D receptor-independent mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res 18: 17251736.
  • 43
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S 1990 A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 323: 878883.
  • 44
    Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, Melton LJ III , Riggs BL 1997 Effects of age and estrogen status on serum parathyroid hormonolevels and biochemical markers of bone turnover in women: A population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 15221527.
  • 45
    Heaney RP 2005 The vitamin D requirement in health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 15: 1319.
  • 46
    Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, Klein EK, Young A, Bibuld D, Reitz R, Salameh W, Ameri A, Tannenbaum AD 2008 Vitamin D2 Is as Effective as Vitamin D3 in Maintaining Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93: 677681.
  • 47
    Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S, Vieth R 1998 Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr 68: 854858.
  • 48
    Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney RP 2004 Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 53875391.
  • 49
    Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE 1997 Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337: 670676.
  • 50
    Tangpricha V, Pearce EN, Chen TC, Holick MF 2002 Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. Am J Med 112: 659662.
  • 51
    Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Dowell S, Chen TC, Holick MF 1998 Vitamin D and its major metabolites: Serum levels after graded oral dosing in healthy men. Osteoporos Int 8: 222230.
  • 52
    Dawson-Hughes B 2002 Impact of vitamin D and calcium on bone and mineral metabolism in older adults. In: HolickMF (ed.) Biologic Effects of Light 2001. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, USA, 175183.
  • 53
    Heaney RP 2006 Barriers to optimizing vitamin D3 intake for the elderly. J Nutr 136: 11231125.
  • 54
    Parikh SJ, Edelman M, Uwaifo GI, Freedman RJ, Semega-Janneh M, Reynolds J, Yanovski JA 2004 The relationship between obesity and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 11961199.
  • 55
    Holick MF 1995 Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 61 (suppl): 638S645S.
  • 56
    Chen TC, Chimeh F, Lu Z, Mathieu J, Person KS, Zhang A, Kohn N, Martinello S, Berkowitz R, Holick MF 2007 Factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis and dietary sources of vitamin D. Arch Biochem Biophys 460: 213217.