• 1
    Rodgers AL, De Klerk DP 1986 Crystalluria and urolithiasis in a relatively stone-free population. Scan Electron Microsc 3: 11571167.
  • 2
    Asplin JR, Parks JH, Coe FL 1997 Dependence of upper limit of metastability on supersaturation in nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int 52: 16021608.
  • 3
    Khan SR 1995 Calcium oxalate crystal interaction with renal tubular epithelium, mechanism of crystal adhesion and its impact on stone development. Urol Res 23: 7179.
  • 4
    Finlayson B, Reid F 1978 The effect of allopurinol on calcium oxalate (whewellite) precipitation. Invest Urol 15: 489492.
  • 5
    Kohri K, Suzuki Y, Yoshida K, Yamamoto K, Amasaki N, Yamate T, Umekawa T, Iguchi M, Sinohara H, Kurita T 1992 Molecular cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding urinary stone protein, which is identical to osteopontin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184: 859864.
  • 6
    Umekawa T, Yamate T, Amasaki N, Kohri K, Kurita T 1995 Osteopontin mRNA in the kidney on an experimental rat model of renal stone formation without renal failure. Urol Int 55: 610.
  • 7
    Tawada T, Fujita K, Sakakura T, Shibutani T, Nagata T, Iguchi M, Kohri K 1999 Distribution of osteopontin and calprotectin as matrix protein in calcium-containing stone. Urol Res 27: 238242.
  • 8
    Yasui T, Fujita K, Asai K, Kohri K 2002 Osteopontin regulates adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals to renal epithelial cells. Int J Urol 9: 100108.
  • 9
    Yamate T, Kohri K, Umekawa T, Iguchi M, Kurita T 1998 Osteopontin antisense oligonucleotide inhibits adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell. J Urol 160: 15061512.
  • 10
    Okada A, Nomura S, Saeki Y, Higashibata Y, Hamamoto S, Hirose M, Itoh Y, Yasui T, Tozawa K, Kohri K 2008 Morphological conversion of calcium oxalate crystals into stones is regulated by osteopontin in mouse kidney. J Bone Miner Res 23: 16291637.
  • 11
    Gao B, Yasui T, Itoh Y, Li Z, Okada A, Tozawa K, Hayashi Y, Kohri K 2007 Association of osteopontin gene haplotypes with nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int 72: 592598.
  • 12
    Hunter GK, Kyle CL, Goldberg HA 1994 Modulation of crystal formation by bone phosphoproteins: Structural specificity of the osteopontin-mediated inhibition of hydroxyappatite formation. Biochem J 300: 723728.
  • 13
    Asplin JR, Arsenault D, Parks JH, Coe FL, Hoyer JR 1998 Contribution of human uropontin to inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization. Kidney Int 53: 194199.
  • 14
    Wesson JA, Johnson RJ, Mazzali M, Beshensky AM, Stietz S, Giachelli C 2003 Osteopontin is a critical inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal formation and retention in renal tubules. J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 139147.
  • 15
    Umekawa T, Chegini N, Khan SR 2002 Oxalate ions and calcium oxalate crystals stimulate MCP-1 expression by renal epithelial cells. Kidney Int 61: 105112.
  • 16
    Verhulst A, Asselman M, Persy VP, Schepers MS, Helbert MF, Verkoelen CF, De Broe ME 2003 Crystal retention capacity of cells in the human nephron: Involvement of CD44 and its ligands hyaluronic acid and osteopontin in the transition of a crystal binding-into a nonadherent epithelium. J Am Soc Nephrol 14: 107115.
  • 17
    Ghazali A, Fuent V, Desaint C, Bataille P, Westeel A, Brazier M, Prin L, Fournier A 1997 Low bone mineral density and peripheral blood monocyte activation profile in calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 3238.
  • 18
    Tsujihata M, Miyake O, Yoshimura K, Kakimoto K, Takahara S, Okuyama A 2001 Comparison of fibronectin content in urinary macromolecules between normal subjects and recurrent stone formers. Eur Urol 40: 458462.
  • 19
    Cramer SD, Ferree PM, Lin K, Milliner DS, Holmes RP 1999 The gene encoding hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR) is mutated in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type II. Hum Mol Genet 8: 20632069.
  • 20
    Kohjimoto Y, Honeyman TW, Jonassen J, Gravel K, Kennington L, Scheid CR 2000 Phospholipase A2 mediates immediate early genes in cultured renal epithelial cells: Possible role of lysophospholipid. Kidney Int 58: 638646.
  • 21
    Urivetsky M, Motola J, King L, Smith AD 1989 Impact of percutaneous renal stone removal on renal function: Assessment by urinary lysozyme activity. Urology 33: 305308.
  • 22
    Yasui T, Fujita K, Sasaki S, Sato M, Sugimoto M, Hirota S, Kitamura Y, Nomura S, Kohri K 1999 Abstract expression of bone matrix proteins in urolithiasis model rats. Urol Res 27: 255261.
  • 23
    Miyazawa K, Suzuki K, Ikeda R, Moriyama MT, Ueda Y, Katsuda S 2005 Apoptosis and its related genes in renal epithelial cells of the stone-forming rat. Urol Res 33: 3138.
  • 24
    Graessler J, Graessler A, Unger S, Kopprasch S, Tausche AK, Kuhlisch E, Schroeder HE 2006 Association of the human urate transporter 1 with reduced renal uric acid excretion and hyperuricemia in a German Caucasian population. Arthritis Rheum 54: 292300.
  • 25
    Tzortzaki EG, Yang M, Glass D, Deng L, Evan AP, Bledsoe SB, Stambrook PJ, Sahota A, Tischfield JA 2003 Impaired expression of an organic cation transporter, IMPT1, in a knockout mouse model for kidney stone disease. Urol Res 31: 257261.
  • 26
    Prie D, Huart V, Bakouh N, Planelles G, Dellis O, Gerard B, Hulin P, Benque-Blanchet F, Silve C, Grandcham B, Friedlander G 2002 Nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis associated with hypophosphatemia caused by mutations in the type 2a sodium-phosphate cotransporter. N Engl J Med 347: 983991.
  • 27
    Tugcu V, Ozbek E, Aras B, Arisan S, Caskurlu T, Tasci AI 2007 Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene polymorphisms in urolithiasis. Urol Res 35: 219224.
  • 28
    Rashed T, Menon M, Thamilselvan S 2004 Molecular mechanism of oxalate-induced free radical production and glutathione redox imbalance in renal epithelial cells: Effect of antioxidants. Am J Nephrol 24: 557568.
  • 29
    Katsuma S, Shiojima S, Hirasawa A, Takagaki K, Kaminishi Y, Koba M, Hagidai Y, Murai M, Ohgi T, Yano J, Tsujimoto G 2002 Global analysis of differentially expressed genes during progression of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 23: 544552.
  • 30
    Chen DH, Kaung HL, Miller CM, Resnick MI, Marengo SR 2004 Microarray analysis of changes in renal phenotype in the ethylene glycol rat model of urolithiasis: Potential and pitfalls. BJU Int 94: 637650.
  • 31
    Hoopes RR Jr , Middleton FA, Sen S, Hueber PA, Reid R, Bushinsky DA, Scheinman SJ 2006 Isolation and confirmation of a calcium excretion quantitative trait locus on chromosome 1 in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming congenic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 17: 12921304.
  • 32
    Liang L, Chen J, Vittal R, Selvanayagam ZE, McAteer JA, Deng L, Tischfield J, Chin KV, Sahota A 2006 Expression profiling of crystal-induced injury in human kidney epithelial cells. Nephron, Physiol 103: 5362.
  • 33
    Okada A, Nomura S, Saeki Y, Higashibata Y, Hirose M, Gao B, Yoshimura M, Itoh Y, Yasui T, Tozawa K, Kohri K 2007 Successful formation of calcium oxalate stone in mouse kidney by the injection of glyoxylate intraperitoneally. Urol Res 35: 8999.
  • 34
    Hirose M, Tozawa K, Okada A, Hamamoto S, Shimizu H, Kubota Y, Itoh Y, Yasui T, Kohri K 2008 Glyoxylate induces renal tubular cell injury and microstructural changes in experimental mouse. Urol Res 36: 139147.
  • 35
    Pizzolato P 1964 Histochemical recognition of calcium oxalate. J Histochem Cytochem 12: 333336.
  • 36
    Itoh Y, Yasui T, Okada A, Tozawa K, Hayashi Y, Kohri K 2005 Examination of the anti-oxidative effect in renal tubular cells and apoptosis by oxidative stress. Urol Res 33: 261266.
  • 37
    Itoh Y, Yasui T, Okada A, Tozawa K, Hayashi Y, Kohri K 2005 Preventive effects of green tea on renal stone formation and the role of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis. J Urol 173: 271275.
  • 38
    Nunn AV, Bell J, Barter P 2007 The integration of lipid-sensing and anti-inflammatory effects: How the PPARs play a role in metabolic balance. Nucl Recept 25: 1.
  • 39
    Kim JY, Lee KJ, Kim DH, Jeong TC, Lee ES, Choi YM, Jeong HG 2004 Cytokine-mediated induction of metallothionein in Hepa-1c1c7 cells by oleanolic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325: 792797.
  • 40
    Miller CW, Ntambi JM 1996 Peroxisome proliferators induce mouse liver stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 94439448.
  • 41
    Mo L, Huang HY, Zhu XH, Shapiro E, Hasty DL, Wu XR 2004 Tamm-Horsfall protein is a critical renal defense factor protecting against calcium oxalate crystal formation. Kidney Int 66: 11591166.
  • 42
    de Water R, Noordermeer C, van der Kwast TH, Nizze H, Boeve ER, Kok DJ, Schroder FH 1999 Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis: Effect of renal crystal deposition on the cellular composition of the renal interstitium. Am J Kidney Dis 33: 761771.
  • 43
    Khan SR, Thamilselvan S 2000 Nephrolithiasis: A consequence of renal epithelial cell exposure to oxalate and calcium oxalate crystals. Mol Urol 4: 305312.
  • 44
    De Water R, Noordermeer C, Houtsmuller AB, Nigg AL, Stijnen T, Schröder FH, Kok DJ 2000 Role of macrophages in nephrolithiasis in rats: An analysis of the renal interstitium. Am J Kidney Dis 36: 615625.
  • 45
    Burdo TH, Wood MR, Fox HS 2007 Osteopontin prevents monocyte recirculation and apoptosis. J Leukoc Biol 81: 15041511.
  • 46
    Ryall RL, Chauvet MC, Grover PK 2005 Intracrystalline proteins and urolithiasis: A comparison of the protein content and ultrastructure of urinary calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate crystals. BJU Int 96: 654663.
  • 47
    der Wal AC, Das PK, Tigges AJ, Becker AE 1992 Macrophage differentiation in atherosclerosis. An in situ immunohistochemical analysis in humans. Am J Pathol 141: 161168.
  • 48
    Dyerberg J, Bang HO, Hjorne N 1975 Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 958966.
  • 49
    Yasui T, Itoh Y, Bing G, Okada A, Tozawa K, Kohri K 2007 Aortic calcification in urolithiasis patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol 41: 419421.
  • 50
    Yasui T, Tanaka H, Fujita K, Iguchi M, Kohri K 2001 Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on urinary calcium excretion in calcium stone formers. Eur Urol 39: 580585.