• 1
    Suttie JW 1990 Warfarin and vitamin K. Clin Cardiol 13: 1618.
  • 2
    Price PA 1989 Gla-containing proteins of bone. Connect Tissue Res 21: 5160.
  • 3
    Knapen MH, Jie KS, Hamulyak K, Vermeer C 1993 Vitamin K-induced changes in markers for osteoblast activity and urinary calcium loss. Calcif Tissue Int 53: 8185.
  • 4
    Binkley NC, Krueger DC, Foley AL, Engelke JA, Suttie JW 2000 Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum under gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 72: 15231528.
  • 5
    Sokoll LJ, Booth SL, O'Brien ME, Davidson KW, Tsaioun KI, Sadowski JA 1997 Changes in serum osteocalcin, plasma phylloquinone, and urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in response to altered intakes of dietary phylloquinone in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 65: 779784.
  • 6
    Martini LA, Booth SL, Saltzman E, do Rosario Dias E, de Oliveria Latorre M, Wood RJ 2006 Dietary phylloquinone depletion and repletion in postmenopausal women: Effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Osteoporos Int 17: 929935.
  • 7
    Booth SL, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, Tucker KL, Hannan MT, McLean RR, Dawson-Hughes B, Wilson PW, Cupples LA, Kiel DP 2003 Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr 77: 512516.
  • 8
    Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA 1999 Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 69: 7479.
  • 9
    Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Gagnon DR, Cupples LA, Wilson PWF, Ordovas J, Schaeffer EJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Kiel DP 2000 Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 71: 12011208.
  • 10
    Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1993 Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. J Clin Invest 91: 17691774.
  • 11
    Price PA 1993 Vitamin K nutrition and postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 91: 1268.
  • 12
    Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ 2006 Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 166: 12561261.
  • 13
    Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Charles P, Hermann AP, Brot C, Eiken P, Mosekilde L 2006 No effect of vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 17: 11221132.
  • 14
    Binkley N, Krueger D, Engelke JA, Suttie JW 2007 Long-term warfarin treatment does not alter skeletal status in male rhesus monkeys. J Bone Miner Res 22: 695700.
  • 15
    Braam LAJLM, Knapen MHJ, Geusens P, Brouns F, Hamulyak K, Gerichhausen MJW, Vermeer C 2003 Vitamin K1 supplementation retards bone loss in postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years of age. Calcif Tissue Int 73: 2126.
  • 16
    Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo ETM, Paterson CR, Mole PA, Harvey JM, Fenton ST, Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, Shearer MJ 2007 Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. J Bone Miner Res 22: 509519.
  • 17
    Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, Gundberg C, Peterson JW, Dawson-Hughes B 2008 Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93: 12171223.
  • 18
    Suttie JW 1995 The importance of menaquinones in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr 15: 399417.
  • 19
    Davidson RT, Foley AL, Engelke JA, Suttie JW 1998 Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria. J Nutr 128: 220223.
  • 20
    Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, Murakami M, Fujino T, Tsutomu D, Yukihiro N 1999 A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 31: 161164.
  • 21
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S 2001 Effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density and incidence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: A comparison of the effect with etidronate. J Orthop Sci 6: 487492.
  • 22
    Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K 1998 Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone 23: 291296.
  • 23
    Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M 2000 Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 15: 515521.
  • 24
    Orimo H, Shiraki M, Fujita T, Onomura T, Inoue T, Kushida K 1992 Clinical evaluation of menatetrenone in the treatment of involutional osteoporosis-a double-blind multicenter comparative study with 1alpha hydroxyvitamin D. J Bone Miner Res 7: S1 ; S122.
  • 25
    Orimo H, Shiraki M, Tomita A, Morii H, Fujita T, Ohata M 1998 Effects of menatetrenone on the bone and calcium metabolism in osteoporosis: A double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Bone Miner Metab 16: 106112.
  • 26
    Sugiyama T 2007 Possible involvements of vitamin K in bone quality. Arch Intern Med 167: 93.
  • 27
    Knapen MHJ, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C 2007 Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 18: 963972.
  • 28
    Gundberg C, Nieman SD, Abrams S, Rosen H 1998 Vitamin K status and bone health: An analysis of methods for determination of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 32583266.
  • 29
    Binkley NC, Krueger DC, Kawahara TN, Engelke JA, Chappell RJ, Suttie JW 2002 A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation. Am J Clin Nutr 76: 10551060.
  • 30
    Yoshikawa T, Turner CH, Peacock M, Slemenda CW, Weaver CM, Teegarden D, Markwardt P, Burr DB 1994 Geometric structure of the femoral neck measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. J Bone Miner Res 10: 10531064.
  • 31
    Faulkner KG, Wacker WK, Barden HS, Simonelli C, Burke PK, Ragi S, Del Rio L 2006 Femur strength index predicts hip fracture independent of bone density and hip axis length. Osteoporos Int 17: 593599.
  • 32
    Venables WN, Ripley BD 2002 Modern Applied Statistics with S, 4th ed. Springer, New York, NY, USA.
  • 33
    Gundberg CM, Nieman SD, Abrams S, Rosen H 1998 Vitamin K status and bone health: An analysis of methods for determination of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 32583266.
  • 34
    Szulc P, Arlot M, Chapuy MC, Duboeuf F, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1994 Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin correlates with hip bone mineral density in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 9: 15911595.
  • 35
    Vergnaud P, Garnero P, Meunier PJ, Breart G, Kamihagi K, Delmas PD 1997 Undercarboxylated osteocalcin measured with a specific immunoassay predicts hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 719724.
  • 36
    Szulc P, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1996 Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture: A three year follow-up study. Bone 18: 487488.
  • 37
    Ishida Y, Kawai S 2004 Comparative efficacy of hormone replacement therapy, etidronate, calcitonin, alfacalcidol and vitamin K in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: The Yamaguchi osteoporosis prevention study. Am J Med 117: 549555.
  • 38
    Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K, Iwamoto J 2005 Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Bone 36: 6168.
  • 39
    Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R 2005 Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16: 713716.
  • 40
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B 2005 Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 293: 22572264.
  • 41
    Haffa A, Krueger D, Bruner J, Engelke J, Gundberg C, Akhter M, Binkley N 2000 Diet or warfarin induced vitamin K insufficiency elevates circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin without altering skeletal status in growing female rats. J Bone Miner Res 15: 872878.
  • 42
    McLean RR, Booth SL, Kiel DP, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, Tucker KL, Cupples LA, Hannan MT 2006 Association of dietary and biochemical measures of vitamin K with quantitative ultrasound of the heel in men and women. Osteoporos Int 17: 600607.
  • 43
    Anonymous 2001 Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and therapy NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy. JAMA 285: 785795.
  • 44
    Seeman E, Delmas P 2006 Bone quality-The material and structural basis of bone strength and fragility. N Engl J Med 354: 22502261.
  • 45
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y 2006 Menatetrenone (vitamin K2) and bone quality in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutr Rev 64: 509517.
  • 46
    Akiyama Y, Hara K, Ohkawa I, Tajima T 1993 Effects of menatetrenone on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 62: 145153.
  • 47
    Binkley N, Krueger D, Engelke JA, Crenshaw T, Suttie JW 2002 Vitamin K supplementation does not affect ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Bone 30: 897900.
  • 48
    Tamura T, Morgan SL, Takimoto H 2007 Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures. Arch Intern Med 167: 94.
  • 49
    Anonymous 2005 Eisai announces the intermediate analysis of anti-osteoporosis treatment post-marketing research to investigate the benefits of menatetrenone as part of the ministry of health, labour and welfare's pharmacoepidemiological drug preview program Available online at Accessed September 2, 2008.