SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Kearns AE, Khosla S, Kostenuik PJ 2008 OPG and RANKL regulation of bone remodeling in health and disease. Endocr Rev 29: 155192.
  • 2
    Dougall WC, Glaccum M, Charrier K, Rohrbach K, Brasel K, De Smedt T, Daro E, Smith J, Tometsko ME, Malisczewski CR, Armstrong A, Shen V, Bain S, Cosman D, Anderson D, Morrissey PJ, Peschon JJ, Schuh J 1999 RANK is essential for osteoclast and lymph node development. Genes Dev 13: 24122424.
  • 3
    Li J, Sarosi I, Yan XQ, Morony S, Capparelli C, Tan HL, McCabe S, Elliot R, Scully S, Van G, Kaufman S, Juan SC, Sun Y, Tarpley J, Martin L, Christensen K, McCabe J, Kostenuik PJ, Hsu H, Fletcher F, Dunstan CR, Lacey DL, Boyle WJ 2000 RANK is the intrinsic hematopoietic cell surface receptor that controls osteoclastogenesis, and regulation of bone mass and calcium metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 15661571.
  • 4
    Kong YY, Yoshida H, Sarosi I, Tan HL, Timms E, Capparelli C, Morony S, Oliveira-dos-Santos AJ, Van G, Itie A, Khoo W, Wakeham A, Dunstan C, Lacey DL, Mak TW, Boyle WJ, Penninger JM 1999 OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph node organogenesis. Nature 397: 315323.
  • 5
    Mizuno A, Amizuka N, Irie K, Murakami A, Fujise N, Kanno T, Sato Y, Nakagawa N, Yasuda H, Mochizuki SI, Gomibuchi T, Yano K, Shima N, Washida N, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K, Ozawa H 1998 Severe osteoporosis in mice lacking osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 247: 610615.
  • 6
    Bucay N, Sarosi I, Dunstan C, Morony S, Tarpley J, Capparelli C, Scully S, Tan HL, Xu W, Lacey DL, Boyle WJ, Simonet WS 1998 Osteoprotegerin-deficient mice develop early onset osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Genes Dev 12: 12601268.
  • 7
    Mizuno A, Kanno T, Hoshi M, Shibata O, Yano K, Fujise N, Kinosaki M, Yamaguchi K, Tsuda E, Murakami A, Yasuda H, Higashio K 2002 Transgenic mice overexpressing soluble osteoclast differentiation factor (sODF) exhibit severe osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab 20: 337344.
  • 8
    Simonet WS, Lacey DL, Dunstan C, Kelly M, Chang MS, Luthy R, Nhuyen HQ, Wooden S, Bennett L, Boone T, Shimamoto G, DeRose M, Elliot R, Colombero A, Tan HL, Trail G, Sullivan J, Davy E, Bucay N, Renshaw-Gegg L, Hughes TM, Hill D, Pattison W, Campbell P, Sander S, Van G, Tarpley J, Derby P, Lee R, Boyle WJ 1997 Osteoprotegerin: A novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density. Cell 89: 309319.
  • 9
    Ross AB, Bateman TA, Kostenuik PJ, Ferguson VL, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Simske SJ 2001 The effects of osteoprotegerin on the mechanical properties of rat bone. J Mater Sci Mater Med 12: 583588.
  • 10
    Kostenuik PJ, Capparelli C, Morony S, Adamu S, Shimamoto G, Shen V, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR 2001 OPG and PTH-(1-34) have additive effects on bone density and mechanical strength in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 142: 42954305.
  • 11
    Samadfam R, Xia Q, Goltzman D 2007 Co-treatment of PTH with osteoprotegerin or alendronate increases its anabolic effect on the skeleton of oophorectomized mice. J Bone Miner Res 22: 5563.
  • 12
    Ichinose Y, Tanaka H, Inoue M, Mochizuki S, Tsuda E, Seino Y 2004 Osteoclastogenesis inhibitor factor/osteoprotegerin reduced bone loss induced by mechanical unloading. Calcif Tissue Int 75: 338343.
  • 13
    Rogers A, Eastell R 2005 REVIEW: Circulating osteoprotegerin ligand and receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand: Clinical utility in metabolic bone disease assessment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 63236331.
  • 14
    Kostenuik PJ 2005 Osteoprotegerin and RANKL regulate bone resorption, density, geometry and strength. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5: 618625.
  • 15
    Stolina M, Adamu S, Ominsky MS, Dzamba BJ, Asuncion F, Geng Z, Middleton S, Brown H, Pretorius J, Schett G, Bolon B, Feige U, Zack D, Kostenuik PJ 2005 RANKL is a marker and mediator of local and systemic bone loss in two rat models of inflammatory arthritis. J Bone Miner Res 20: 17561765.
  • 16
    Otsu N 1979 A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 9: 6266.
  • 17
    Stolina M, Dwyer D, Ominsky MS, Corbin T, Van G, Bolon B, Sarosi I, McCabe J, Zack D, Kostenuik PJ 2007 ContinuousRANKL inhibition in OPG transgenic mice and rats suppresses bone resorption without impairing lymphorganogenesis or functional immune responses. J Immunol 179: 74977505.
  • 18
    Morony S, Warmington K, Adamu S, Asuncion F, Geng Z, Grisanti M, Tan HL, Capparelli C, Starnes C, Weimann B, Dunstan CR, Kostenuik PJ 2005 The RANKL inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) causes greater suppression of bone resorption and hypercalcemia compared to bisphosphonates in two models of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Endocrinology 146: 32353243.
  • 19
    McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Cohen SB, Bolognese MA, Woodson GC, Moffett AH, Peacock M, Miller PD, Lederman SN, Chesnut CH, Lain D, Kivitz AJ, Holloway DL, Zhang C, Peterson MC, Bekker PJ 2006 Denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. N Engl J Med 354: 821831.
  • 20
    Brown JP, Prince RL, Deal C, Recker RR, Kiel DP, de Gregorio LH, Hadji P, Hofbauer LC, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Wang H, Austin M, Wagman RB, Newmark R, Libanati C, San Martin J, Bone HG 2009 Comparison of the effect of denosumab and alendronate on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: A randomized, blinded, phase 3 trial. J Bone Miner Res 24: 153161.
  • 21
    Ominsky MS, Corbin T, Stolina M, Dwyer D, Li X, Morony S, Warmington KS, Geng Z, Grisanti M, Tan H, Adamu S, Asuncion F, Bolon B, McCabe J, Kostenuik PJ 2006 Serum OPG levels are correlated positively with bone strength and inversely with bone turnover in mature OPG transgenic rats. Calcif Tissue Int 78: S34.
  • 22
    Hochberg MC, Greenspan S, Wasnich RD, Miller P, Thompson DE, Ross PD 2002 Changes in bone density and turnover explain the reduction in incidence of nonvertebral fractures that occur during treatment with antiresorptive agents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 15861592.
  • 23
    Qiu S, Rao DS, Palnitkar S, Parfitt AM 2002 Age and distance from the surface but not menopause reduce osteocyte density in human cancellous bone. Bone 31: 313318.
  • 24
    Frost HM 1960 In vivo osteocyte death. J Bone Joint Surg Am 42: 138143.
  • 25
    Ma Y-L, Dai RC, Sheng ZF, Jin Y, Zhang YH, Fang LN, Fan HJ, Liao EY 2008 Quantitative associations between osteocyte density and biomechanics, microcrack and microstructure in OVX rats vertebral trabeculae. J Biomech 41: 13241332.
  • 26
    Ominsky MS, Li X, Asuncion F, Barrero M, Warmington K, Dwyer D, Stolina M, Geng Z, Grisanti M, Tan HL, Corbin T, McCabe J, Simonet WS, Ke HZ, Kostenuik PJ 2008 RANKL inhibition with osteoprotegerin (OPG) increases bone strength by improving cortical and trabecular bone achitecture in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 23: 672682.
  • 27
    Kudlacek S, Schneider B, Woloszczuk W, Pietschmann P, Willvonseder R 2003 Serum levels of osteoprotegerin increase with age in a healthy adult population. Bone 32: 681686.
  • 28
    Jiang LS, Zhang ZM, Jiang SD, Chen WH, Dai LY 2008 Differential bone metabolism between postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 23: 475483.
  • 29
    Abrahamsen B, Hjelmborg J, Kostenuik PJ, Stilgren LS, Kyvik K, Adamu S, Brixen K, Langdahl BL 2005 Circulating amounts of osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand: Genetic influence and relationship with BMD assessed in female twins. Bone 36: 727735.
  • 30
    Ueland T, Bollerslev J, Wilson SG, Dick IM, Islam F, Mullin BH, Devine A, Prince RL 2007 No associations between OPG gene polymorphisms or serum levels and measures of osteoporosis in elderly Australian women. Bone 40: 175181.
  • 31
    Capparelli C, Morony S, Warmington K, Adamu S, Lacey D, Dunstan CR, Stouch B, Martin S, Kostenuik PJ 2003 Sustained antiresorptive effects after a single treatment with human recombinant osteoprotegerin (OPG): A pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic analysis in rats. J Bone Miner Res 18: 852858.
  • 32
    Shalhoub V, Faust J, Boyle WJ, Dunstan C, Kelley MJ, Kaufman S, Scully S, van Auken M, Lacey DL 1999 Osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand effects on osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell precursors. J Cell Biochem 72: 251261.
  • 33
    Walker DG 1973 Osteopetrosis cured by temporary parabiosis. Science 180: 875.
  • 34
    Ikeda T, Utsuyama M, Hirokawa K 2001 Expression profiles of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB, and osteoprotegerin messenger mRAN in aged ovariectomized rat bones. J Bone Miner Res 16: 14161425.
  • 35
    Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Yasuda H, Mizuno A, Itoh K, Ueno Y, Shinki T, Gillespie MT, Martin TJ, Higashio K, Suda T 2000 Osteoprotegerin produced by osteoblasts is an important regulator in osteoclast development and function. Endocrinology 141: 34783484.
  • 36
    Nakamura H, Tsuji T, Hirata A, Yamamoto T 2002 Localization of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on bone surfaces and cement lines in rat tibia. J Histochem Cytochem 50: 945953.
  • 37
    Franklin M, Bu SY, Lerner MR, Lancaster EA, Bellmer D, Marlow D, Lightfoot SA, Arjmandi BH, Brackett DJ, Lucas EA, Smith BJ 2006 Dried plum prevents bone loss in a male osteoporosis model via IGF-I and the RANK pathway. Bone 39: 13311342.
  • 38
    Silvestrini G, Ballanti P, Sebastiani M, Leopizzi M, Di Vito M, Bonucci E 2008 OPG and RANKL mRNA and protein expressions in the primary and secondary metaphyseal trabecular bone of PTH-treated rats are independent of that of SOST. J Mol Histol 39: 237242.
  • 39
    Jin Q, Cirelli JA, Park CH, Sugai JV, Taba M, Kostenuik PJ, Giannobile WV 2007 RANKL inhibition via osteoprotegerin blocks bone loss in experimental periodontitis. J Periodontol 78: 13001308.
  • 40
    Kim H, Morgan-Bagley S, Kostenuik PJ 2006 RANKL inhibition: A novel strategy to decrease femoral head deformity after ischemic necrosis. J Bone Miner Res 21: 19461954.
  • 41
    Tomoyasu A, Goto M, Fujise N, Mochizuki SI, Yasuda H, Morinaga T, Tsuda E, Higashio K 1998 Characterization of monomeric and homodimeric forms of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 245: 382387.
  • 42
    Stolina M, Bolon B, Middleton S, Dwyer D, Brown H, Duryea D, Zhu L, Rohner A, Pretorius J, Kostenuik PJ, Feige U, Zack D 2008 The evolving systemic and local biomarker milieu at different stages of disease progression in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. J Clin Immunol (in press).
  • 43
    Ferretti JL, Capozza RF, Mondelo N, Zanchetta JR 1993 Interrelationships between densitometric, geometric and mechanical properties of rat femora: Inferences concerning mechanical regulation of bone modeling. J Bone Miner Res 8: 13891396.
  • 44
    Frost HM 1987 Bone “mass” and the “mechanostat”: A proposal. Anat Rec 219: 19.
  • 45
    Whyte MP 2006 Sclerosing bone disorders. In: FavusMJ (ed.) Primer on the Metabolic Bone Disease and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 6th ed. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Washington, DC, USA, 398414.
  • 46
    Ward K, Cowell CT, Little DG 2005 Quantification of metaphyseal modeling in children treated with bisphosphonates. Bone 36: 9991002.
  • 47
    Jamsa T, Rho JY, Fan Z, Mackay CA, Marks SC, Tuukkanen J 2002 Mechanical properties in long bones of rat osteopetrotic mutations. J Biomech 35: 161165.
  • 48
    Tuukkanen J, Koivukangas A, Jamsa T, Sundquist K, Mackay CA, Marks SC 2000 Mineral density and bone strength are dissociated in long bones of rat osteopetrotic mutations. J Bone Miner Res 25: 19051911.
  • 49
    Gatti D, Antoniazzi F, Prizzi R, Braga V, Rossini M, Tato L, Viapiana O, Adami S 2005 Intravenous neridronate in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: A randomized controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 20: 758763.
  • 50
    Marini JC 2006 Should children with osteogenesis imperfecta be treated with bisphosphonates ? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2: 1415.
  • 51
    Whyte MP, Wenkert D, Clements KL, McAlister WH, Mumm S 2003 Bisphosphonate-induced osteopetrosis. N Engl J Med 349: 457463.
  • 52
    Bateman TA, Dunstan CR, Ferguson VL, Lacey DL, Ayers RA, Simske SJ 2000 Osteoprotegerin mitigates tail suspension-induced osteopenia. Bone 26: 443449.
  • 53
    Ominsky MS, Kostenuik PJ, Cranmer P, Smith SY, Atkinson JE 2007 The RANKL inhibitor OPG-Fc increases cortical and trabecular bone mass in intact cynomolgus monkeys. Osteoporos Int 18: 10731082.
  • 54
    Guy JA, Shea M, Peter CP, Morrissey R, Hayes WC 1993 Continuous alendronate treatment throughout growth, maturation, and aging in the rat results in increases in bone mass and mechanical properties. Calcif Tissue Int 53: 283288.