• 1
    Turner CH, Forwood MR, Otter MW 1994 Mechanotransduction in bone: Do bone cells act as sensors of fluid flow? FASEB J 8: 875878.
  • 2
    Turner CH, Owan I, Takano Y 1995 Mechanotransduction in bone: Role of strain rate. Am J Physiol 269: E438E442.
  • 3
    Rubin CT, Lanyon LE 1985 Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude. Calcif Tissue Int 37: 411417.
  • 4
    Arden NK, Spector TD 1997 Genetic influences on muscle strength, lean body mass, and bone mineral density: A twin study. J Bone Miner Res 12: 20762081.
  • 5
    Li X, Mohan S, Gu W, Wergedal J, Baylink DJ 2001 Quantitative assessment of forearm muscle size, forelimb grip strength, forearm bone mineral density, and forearm bone size in determining humerus breaking strength in 10 inbred strains of mice. Calcif Tissue Int 68: 365369.
  • 6
    De Jong Z, Munneke M, Lems WF, Zwinderman AH, Kroon HM, Pauwels EK, Jansen A, Ronday KH, Dijkmans BA, Breedveld FC, Vlieland TP, Hazes JM 2004 Slowing of bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by long-term high-intensity exercise. Arthritis Rheum 50: 10661076.
  • 7
    Kaye M, Kusy RP 1995 Genetic lineage, bone mass, and physical activity in mice. Bone 17: 131135.
  • 8
    Gordon KR, Perl M, Levy C 1989 Structural alterations and breaking strength of mouse femora exposed to three activity regimens. Bone 10: 303312.
  • 9
    Lu T-W, Taylor SJG, O'Connor JJ, Walker PS 1997 Influence of muscle activity on the forces in the femur: An in vivo study. J Biomech 30: 11011106.
  • 10
    Frost M 1997 Perspective On our age-related bone loss: Insights from a new paradigm. J Bone Miner Res 12: 15391546.
  • 11
    Dequeker J, Nijs J, Verstraeten A, Geusens P, Gevers G 1987 Genetic determinants of bone mineral content at the spine and radius: A twin study. Bone 8: 207209.
  • 12
    Beamer WG, Donahue LR, Rosen CJ, Baylink DJ 1996 Genetic variability in adult bone density among inbred strains of mice. Bone 18: 397403.
  • 13
    Klein RF, Mitchell SR, Phillips TJ, Belknap JK, Orwoll ES 1998 Quantitative trait loci affecting peak bone mineral density in mice. J Bone Miner Res 13: 16481656.
  • 14
    Shimizu M, Higuchi K, Kasai S, Tsuboyama T, Matsushita M, Mori M, Shimizu Y, Nakamura T, Hosokawa M 2001 Chromosome 13 locus, Pbd2, regulates bone density in mice. J Bone Miner Res 16: 19721982.
  • 15
    Lang DH, Sharkey NA, Mack HA, Vogler GP, Vandenbergh DJ, Blizard DA, Stout JT, McClearn GE 2005 Quantitative trait loci analysis of structural and material skeletal phenotypes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2 second generation and recombinant inbred mice. J Bone Miner Res 20: 8899.
  • 16
    Mayeda AR, Hofstetter JR 1999 A QTL for the genetic variance in free-running period and level of locomotor activity between inbred strains of mice. Behav Genet 29: 171176.
  • 17
    Tang X, Orchard SM, Sanford LD 2002 Home cage activity and behavioral performance in inbred and hybrid mice. Behav Brain Res 136: 555569.
  • 18
    Koyner J, Demarest K, McCaughran J Jr, Cipp L, Hitzemann R 2000 Identification and time dependence of quantitative trait loci for basal locomotor activity in the BXD recombinant inbred series and a B6D2 F2 intercross. Behav Genet 30: 159170.
  • 19
    Lerman I, Harrison BC, Freeman K, Hewett TE, Allen DL, Robbins J, Leinwand LA 2002 Genetic variability in forced and voluntary endurance exercise performance in seven inbred mouse strains. J Appl Physiol 92: 22452255.
  • 20
    Karasik D, Kiel DP 2008 Perspective genetics of the musculoskeletal system: A pleiotropic approach. J Bone Miner Res 23: 788802.
  • 21
    Orestes-Cardoso SM, Nefussi JR, Hotton D, Mesbah M, Orestes-Cardoso MD, Robert B, Berdal A 2001 Postnatal Msx1 expression pattern in craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeleton of transgenic mice from the first week until the second year. Dev Dyn 221: 113.
  • 22
    Vandenbergh DJ, Heron K, Peterson R, Shpargel KB, Woodroofe A, Blizard DA, McClearn GE, Vogler GP 2003 Simple tests to detect errors in high-throughput genotype data in the molecular laboratory. J Biomol Tech 14: 916.
  • 23
    Phillips TJ, Huson MG, McKinnon CS 1998 Localization of genes mediating acute and sensitized locomotor responses to cocaine in BXD/Ty recombinant inbred mice. J Neurosci 18: 30233034.
  • 24
    Buck K, Lischka T, Dorow J, Crabbe J 2000 Mapping quantitative trait loci that regulate sensitivity and tolerance to quinpirole, a dopamine mimetic selective for D(2)/D(3) receptors. Am J Med Genet 96: 696705.
  • 25
    Demarest K, McCaughran J Jr, Mahjubi E, Cipp L, Hitzemann R 1999 Identification of an acute ethanol response quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 2. J Neurosci 19: 549561.
  • 26
    Bolivar V, Flaherty L 2003 A region on chromosome 15 controls intersession habituation in mice. J Neurosci 23: 94359438.
  • 27
    Lionikas A, Blizard DA, Vandenbergh DJ, Glover MG, Stout JT, Vogler GP, McClearn GE, Larsson L 2003 Genetic architecture of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle weight in 200-day-old mice of the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J lineage. Physiol Genomics 16: 141152.
  • 28
    Lionikas A, Blizard DA, Gerhard GS, Vandenbergh DJ, Stout JT, Vogler GP, McClearn GE, Larsson L 2005 Genetic determinants of weight of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle in 500-day old mice of the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J lineage. Physiol Genomics 21: 184192.
  • 29
    Lionikas A, Blizard DA, Vandenbergh DJ, Stout JT, Vogler GP, McClearn GE, Larsson L 2006 Genetic determinants of weight of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in old mice. Mamm Genome 17: 615628.
  • 30
    Foreman JE, Lionikas A, Lang DH, Gyekis JP, Krishnan M, Sharkey NA, Gerhard GS, Grant MD, Vogler GP, Mack HA, Stout JT, Griffith JW, Lakoski JM, Hofer SM, McClearn GE, Vandenbergh DJ, Blizard DA Genetic architecture for hole-board behaviors across substantial time intervals in young, middle-aged, and old mice. Genes Brain Behav (in press).
  • 31
    Wang S, Basten CJ, Zeng Z-B 2001–2004 Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
  • 32
    Lander ES, Kruglyak L 1995 Genetic dissection of complex traits: Guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nat Genet 11: 241247.
  • 33
    Lang DH, Sharkey NA, Lionikas A, Mack HA, Larsson LG, Vogler GP, Vandenbergh DJ, Blizard DA, Stout JT, Stitt JP, McClearn GE 2005 Adjusting data to body size: A comparison of methods as applied to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of musculoskeletal phenotypes. J Bone Miner Res 20: 748757.
  • 34
    Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ Jr 1988 Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 108: 824828.
  • 35
    Menkes A, Mazel S, Redmond RA, Koffler K, Libanati CR, Gundberg CM, Zizic TM, Hagberg JM, Pratley RE, Hurley BF 1993 Strength training increases regional bone mineral density and bone remodeling in middle-aged and older men. J Appl Physiol 74: 24782484.
  • 36
    Notomi T, Okazaki Y, Okimoto N, Saitoh S, Nakamura T, Suzuki M 2000 A Comparison of resistance and aerobic training for mass, strength and turnover of bone in growing rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 83: 469474.
  • 37
    Chao D, Espeland MA, Farmer D, Register TC, Lenchik L, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH 2000 Effect of voluntary weight loss on bone mineral density in older overweight women. J Am Geriatr Soc 48: 753759.
  • 38
    Gossain VV, Rao DS, Carella MJ, Divine G, Rovner DR 1999 Bone mineral density (BMD) in obesity effect of weight loss. J Med 30: 367376.
  • 39
    Stewart KJ, Deregis JR, Turner KL, Bacher AC, Sung J, Hees PS, Tayback M, Ouyang P 2002 Fitness, fatness and activity as predictors of bone mineral density in older persons. J Intern Med 252: 381388.
  • 40
    Phillips SK, Rook KM, Siddle NC, Bruce SA, Woledge RC 1993 Muscle weakness in women occurs at an earlier age than in men, but strength is preserved by hormone replacement therapy. Clin Sci 84: 9598.
  • 41
    Henderson ND, Turri MG, DeFries JC, Flint J 2004 QTL Analysis of multiple behavioral measures of anxiety in mice. Behav Genet 34: 267293.
  • 42
    Davis RL, Weintraub H, Lassar AB 1987 Expression of a single transfected cDNA converts fibroblasts to myoblasts. Cell 51: 9871000.
  • 43
    Kostek MC, Delmonico MJ, Reichel JB, Roth SM, Douglass L, Ferrell RE, Hurley BF 2005 Muscle strength response to strength training is influenced by insulin-like growth factor 1 genotype in older adults. J Appl Physiol 98: 21472154.