• 1
    Siris E. Alendronate in the treatment of osteoporosis: a review of the clinical trials. J Womens Health Gender-Based Med. 2000; 9: 599606.
  • 2
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, et al. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA. 1998; 280: 20772082.
  • 3
    Pols HAP, Felsenberg D, Hanley DA, et al. Multinational, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of alendronate on bone density and fracture risk in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: results from the FOSIT study. Osteoporosis Int. 1999; 9: 461468.
  • 4
    Papapoulos SE, Quandt SA, Liberman UA, Hochberg MC, Thompson DE. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of alendronate for the prevention of hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis Int. 2005; 16: 468474.
  • 5
    Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Bröll J, et al. Effect of oral alendronate on the bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 14371443.
  • 6
    Recker RR. Skeletal fragility and bone quality. J Musculoskel Neuronal Interact. 2007; 7: 5455.
  • 7
    Paschalis EP, Shane E, Lyritis G, Skarantavos G, Mendelsohn R, Boskey AL. Bone fragility and collagen cross-links. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19: 20002004.
    Direct Link:
  • 8
    Roschger P, Rinnerthaler S, Yates J, Rodan GA, Fratzl P, Klaushofer K. Alendronate increases degree and uniformity of mineralization in cancellous bone and decreases the porosity in cortical bone of osteoporotic women. Bone. 2001; 29: 185191.
  • 9
    Loveridge N, Power J, Reeve J, Boyde A. Bone mineralization density and femoral neck fragility. Bone. 2004; 35: 929941.
  • 10
    Zoehrer R, Roschger P, Fratzl P, et al. Effects of 3- and 5-year treatment with risedronate on the bone mineral density distribution of cancellous bone in human iliac crest biopsies. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21: 11061112.
  • 11
    Diab T, Condon KW, Burr DB, Vashishth D. Age-related change in the damage morphology of human cortical bone and its role in bone fragility. Bone. 2006; 38: 427431.
  • 12
    Fratzl P, Gupta HS, Paschalis EP, Roschger P. Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen-mineral nano-composite in bone. J Mater Chem. 2004; 14: 21152123.
  • 13
    Boivin GY, Chavassieux PM, Santora AC, Yates J, Meunier PJ. Alendronate increases bone strength by increasing the mean degree of mineralization of bone tissue in osteoporotic women. Bone. 2000; 27: 687694.
  • 14
    Boivin G, Meunier PJ. Effects of bisphosphonates on matrix mineralization. J Musculoskel Neuronal Interact. 2002; 2: 538543.
  • 15
    Borah B, Dufresne TE, Ritman EL, et al. Long-term risedronate treatment normalizes mineralization and continues to preserve trabecular architecture: sequential triple biopsy studies with micro-computed tomography. Bone. 2006; 39: 345352.
  • 16
    Currey JD. Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Pres; 2002: 436.
  • 17
    Boivin G, Bala Y, Doublier A, et al. The role of mineralization and organic matrix in the microhardness of bone tissue from controls and osteoporotic patients. Bone. 2008; 43: 532538.
  • 18
    Nuzzo S, Lafage-Proust MH, Martin-Badosa E, et al. Synchrotron radiation microtomography allows the analysis of three-dimensional microarchitecture and degree of mineralization of human iliac crest biopsy specimens: effect of etidronate treatment. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17: 13721382.
  • 19
    Roschger P, Paschalis EP, Fratzl P, Klaushofer K. Bone mineralization density distribution in health and disease. Bone. 2008; 42: 456466.
  • 20
    Boyde A, Jones SJ. Backscattered electron imaging of skeletal tissues. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res. 1983; 5: 145150.
  • 21
    Ruffoni D, Fratzl P, Roschger P, Klaushofer K, Weinkamer R. The bone mineralization density distribution as a fingerprint of the mineralization process. Bone. 2007; 40: 13081319.
  • 22
    Roschger P, Gupta HS, Berzlanovich A, et al. Constant mineralization density distribution in cancellous human bone. Bone. 2003; 32: 316323.
  • 23
    Boivin G, Bala Y, Chapurlat RD, Delmas PD. Long-term treatment with oral bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women: effects on the degree of mineralization and microhardness of bone [abstract 1029]. ASBMR 30th Annual Meeting, Montreal, Canada, September 12–16, 2008.
  • 24
    Black DM, Schwartz AV, Ensrud KE, et al. Effects of continuing or stopping alendronate after 5 years of treatment: the fracture intervention trial long-term extension (FLEX)—a randomized trial. JAMA. 2006; 296: 29272938.
  • 25
    Bone HG, Hosking D, Devogelaer JP, et al. Ten years' experience with alendronate for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 11891199.
  • 26
    Ensrud KE, Barrett-Connor EL, Schwartz A, et al. Randomized trial of effects of alendronate continuation versus discontinuation in women with low BMD: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-Term Extension. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19: 12591269.
  • 27
    Nyman JS, Yeh OC, Hazelwood SJ, Martin RB. A theoretical analysis of long-term bisphosphonate effects on trabecular bone volume and microdamage. Bone. 2004; 35: 296305.
  • 28
    Komatsubara S, Mori S, Mashiba T, et al. Long-term treatment of incadronate disodium accumulates microdamage but improves the trabecular bone microarchitecture in dog vertebra. J Bone Miner Res. 2003; 18: 512520.
  • 29
    Allen MR, Burr DB. Three years of alendronate treatment results in similar levels of vertebral microdamage as after one year of treatment. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22: 17591765.
  • 30
    Stepan JJ, Burr DB, Pavo I, et al. Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Bone. 2007; 41: 378385.
  • 31
    Chapurlat RD, Arlot M, Burt-Pichat B, et al. Microcrack frequency and bone remodeling in postmenopausal osteoporotic women in long-term bisphosphonates: a bone biopsy study. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22: 15021509.
  • 32
    Chavassieux PM, Arlot ME, Reda C, Wei L, Yates AJ, Meunier PJ. Histomorphometric assessment of the long-term effects of alendronate on bone quality and remodeling in patients with osteoporosis. J Clin Invest. 1997; 100: 14751480.
  • 33
    Zizak I, Roschger P, Paris O, et al. Characteristics of mineral particles in the human bone/cartilage interface. J Struct Biol. 2003; 141: 208217.
  • 34
    Roschger P, Fratzl P, Eschberger J, Klaushofer K. Validation of quantitative backscattered electron imaging for the measurement of mineral density distribution in human bone biopsies. Bone. 1998; 23: 31926.
  • 35
    Rinnerthaler S, Roschger P, Jakob HF, Nader A, Klaushofer K, Fratzl P. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering analysis of human bone sections. Calcif Tissue Int. 1999; 64: 422429.
  • 36
    Roschger P, Plenk H Jr, Klaushofer K, Eschberger J. A new scanning electron microscopy approach to the quantification of bone mineral distribution: backscattered electron image grey-levels correlated to calcium K alpha-line intensities. Scanning Microsc. 1995; 9: 7586; discussion 86–88.
  • 37
    Fratzl P, Schreiber S, Klaushofer K. Bone mineralization as studied by small-angle x-ray scattering. Connect Tissue Res. 1996; 34: 247254.
  • 38
    Riggs BL, Melton LJ III. The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 620627.
  • 39
    Ruffoni D, Fratzl P, Roschger P, Phipps R, Klaushofer K, Weinkamer R. Effect of temporal changes in bone turnover on the bone mineralization density distribution: a computer simulation study. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 19051914.
  • 40
    Fratzl P, Roschger P, Fratzl-Zelman N, Paschalis EP, Phipps R, Klaushofer K. Evidence that treatment with risedronate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis affects bone mineralization and bone volume. Calcif Tissue Int. 2007; 81: 7380.
  • 41
    Parisien MV, McMahon D, Pushparaj N, Dempster DW. Trabecular architecture in iliac crest bone biopsies: infra-individual variability in structural parameters and changes with age. Bone. 1988; 9: 289295.
  • 42
    Durchschlag E, Paschalis E, Zöhrer R, et al. Bone material properties in trabecular bone from human iliac crest biopsies after 3- and 5-year treatment with risedronate. J Bone Miner Res. 2006; 21: 15811590.
  • 43
    Odvina CV, Zerwekh JE, Rao DS, Maalouf N, Gottschalk FA, Pak CYC. Severely suppressed bone turnover: a potential complication of alendronate therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90: 12941301.
  • 44
    Ebeling PR, Burr DB. Positive effects of intravenous zoledronic acid on bone remodeling and structure: are different effects on osteoblast activity to other oral bisphosphonates responsible? J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 25.
  • 45
    Wasserman N, Yerramshetty J, Akkus O. Microcracks colocalize within highly mineralized regions of cortical bone tissue. Eur J Morphol. 2005; 42: 4351.
  • 46
    Recker RR, Delmas PD, Halse J, et al. Effects of intravenous zoledronic acid once yearly on bone remodeling and bone structure. J Bone Miner Res. 2008; 23: 616.