• 1
    Harris S, Dallal GE, Dawson-Hughes B 1992 Influence of body weight on rates of change in bone density of the spine, hip, and radius in postmenopausal women Calcif Tissue Int 50: 1923.
  • 2
    Kroger H, Tuppurainen M, Honkanen R, Alhava E, Saarikoski S 1994 Bone mineral density and risk factors for osteoporosis—A population-based study of 1600 perimenopausal women Calcif Tissue Int 55: 17.
  • 3
    Compston JE, Bhambhani M, Laskey MA, Murphy S, Khaw KT 1992 Body composition and bone mass in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol 37: 426431.
  • 4
    Reid IR, Plank LD, Evans MC 1992 Fat mass is an important determinant of whole body bone density in premenopausal women but not in men J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75: 779782.
  • 5
    Reid IR, Ames R, Evans MC, Sharpe S, Gamble G, France JT, Lim TM, Cundy TF 1992 Determinants of total body and regional bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women—A key role for fat mass J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75: 4551.
  • 6
    Aloia JF, Vaswani A, Ma R, Flaster E 1995 To what extent is bone mass determined by fat-free or fat mass? Am J Clin Nutr 61: 11101114.
  • 7
    Grodin JM, Siiteri PK, MacDonald PC 1973 Source of estrogen production in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36: 207214.
  • 8
    Wang Q, Hassager C, Ravn P, Wang S, Christiansen C 1994 Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women: Age-related or menopause-related Am J Clin Nutr 60: 843848.
  • 9
    Cohn SH, Vaswani A, Zanzi I, Aloia JF, Roginsky MS, Ellisk KJ 1976 Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total body neutron activation Metabol Clin Exper 25: 8595.
  • 10
    Evans WJ 1992 Exercise, nutrition and aging J Nutr 122(Suppl 3): 796801.
  • 11
    Reid IR, Ames R, Evans MC, Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD 1994 Determinants of the rate of bone loss in normal postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79: 950945.
  • 12
    Lohman T, Going S, Pamenter R, Hall M, Boyden T, Houtkooper L, Ritenbaugh C, Bare L, Hill A, Aickin M 1995 Effects of resistance training on regional and total bone mineral density in premenopausal women: A randomized prospective study J Bone Miner Res 10: 10151024.
  • 13
    Houtkooper LB, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, Lohman TG, Going SB, Weber JL, Greaves KA, Boyden TW, Pamenter RW, Hall MC 1995 Nutrients, body composition and exercise are related to change in bone mineral density in premenopausal women J Nutr 125: 12291237.
  • 14
    Schefte H 1959 The Analysis of Variance. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, U.S.A.
  • 15
    Winer BJ 1971 Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, U.S.A.
  • 16
    Anonymous 1994 NIH releases consensus statement on optimal calcium intake Am Fam Phys 50: 13851387.
  • 17
    Prior JC 1990 Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone Endocrine Rev 11: 386398.
  • 18
    Leino A, Jarvisalo J, Impivaara O, Kaitsaari M 1994 Ovarian hormone status, life-style factors, and markers of bone metabolism in women aged 50 years Calcif Tissue Int 54: 262267.
  • 19
    Cumming RG 1990 Calcium intake and bone mass: A quantitative review of the evidence Calcif Tissue Int 47: 194201.
  • 20
    Aloia JF, McGowan DM, Vaswani AN, Ross P, Cohn SH 1991 Relationship of menopause to skeletal and muscle mass Am J Clin Nutr 53: 13781383.
  • 21
    Liel Y, Edwards J, Shary J, Spicer KM, Gordon L, Bell NH 1988 The effects of race and body habitus on bone mineral density of the radius, hip and spine in premenopausal women J Clin Endocrinal Metab 66: 12471250.
  • 22
    Ribot C, Tremollieres F, Pouilles JM, Bonneu M, Germain F, Louvet JP 1987 Obesity and postmenopausal bone loss: The influence of obesity on vertebral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women Bone 8: 327331.
  • 23
    Bevier WC, Wiswell RA, Pyka G, Kozak KC, Newhall KM, Marcus R 1989 Relationship of body composition, muscle strength, and aerobic capacity to bone mineral density in older men and women J Bone Miner Res 4: 421432.
  • 24
    Pocock N, Eisman J, Gwinn T, Sambrook P, Kelly P, Freund J, Yeates M 1989 Muscle strength, physical fitness, and weight but not age predict femoral neck bone mass J Bone Miner Res 4: 441448.
  • 25
    DeSimone DP, Stevens J, Edwards J, Shary J, Gordon L, Bell NH 1989 Influence of body habitus and race on bone mineral density of the mid-radius, hip and spine in aging women J Bone Miner Res 4: 827830.
  • 26
    Slemenda CW 1995 Editorial: Body composition and skeletal density—Mechanical loading or something more? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 17611763.
  • 27
    Reid IR, Legge M, Stapleton JP, Evans MC, Grey AB 1995 Regular exercise dissociates fat mass and bone density in premenopausal women J Clin Endocrinal Metab 80: 17641768.
  • 28
    Mazess RB, Barden H, Mautalen C, Vega E 1994 Normalization of spine densitometry J Bone Miner Res 9: 541548.
  • 29
    Prentice A, Parsons TJ, Cole TJ 1994 Uncritical use of bone mineral density in absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants Am J Clin Nutr 60: 837842.
  • 30
    Cummings SR, Marcus R, Palermo L, Ensrud KE, Genant HK 1994 Does estimating volumetric bone density of the femoral neck improve the prediction of hip fracture? A prospective study. Study of osteoporotic fractures research group J Bone Miner Res 9: 14291432.
  • 31
    Compston JE 1995 Editorial: Bone density: BMC, BMD, or corrected BMD? Bone 16: 57.