SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Melton LJ III 1995 Epidemiology of fractures. In: RiggsBL, MeltonLJIII (eds.) Osteoporosis: Etiology, Diagnosis and Management, 2nd Ed. Lippincott-Raven Press, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A., pp. 225247.
  • 2
    Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA 1990 Hip fracture incidence among the old and very old: A population-based study of 745,435 cases Am J Public Health 80: 871873.
  • 3
    Griffin MR, Ray WA, Fought RL, Melton LJ III 1992 Black-white differences in fracture rates Am J Epidemiol 136: 13781385.
  • 4
    Jacobsen SJ, Cooper C, Gottlieb MS, Goldberg J, Yahnke DP, Melton LJ III 1992 Hospitalization with vertebral fracture among the aged: A national population-based study, 1986–1989 Epidemiology 3: 515518.
  • 5
    Baron JA, Barrett J, Malenka D, Fisher E, Kniffin W, Bubolz T, Tosteson T 1994 Racial differences in fracture risk Epidemiology 5: 4247.
  • 6
    Seeley DG, Browner WS, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Scott JC, Cummings SR, for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1991 Which fractures are associated with low appendicular bone mass in elderly women Ann Intern Med 115: 837842.
  • 7
    Seeley DG, Browner WS, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Cummings SR 1995 Almost all fractures are osteoporotic J Bone Miner Res 10(Suppl 1): S468.
  • 8
    (Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States 1994 Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age Fifty and Over: Background Paper. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 9
    Magaziner J, Simonsick EM, Kashner TM, Hebel JR, Kenzora JE 1989 Survival experience of aged hip fracture patients Am J Public Health 79: 274278.
  • 10
    Fisher ES, Baron JA, Malenka DJ, Barrett JA, Kniffin WD, Whaley FS, Bubolz TA 1991 Hip fracture incidence and mortality in New England Epidemiology 2: 116122.
  • 11
    Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA 1992 Race and sex differences in mortality following fracture of the hip Am J Public Health 82: 11471150.
  • 12
    Poór G, Jacobsen SJ, Melton LJ III 1994 Mortality following hip fracture: Facts and research in gerontology Année Gérontologique 7: 91109.
  • 13
    Miller CW 1978 Survival and ambulation following hip fracture J Bone Joint Surg 60-A: 930934.
  • 14
    Jette AM, Harris BA, Cleary PD, Campiol EW 1987 Functional recovery after hip fracture Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68: 735740.
  • 15
    Mossey JM, Mutran E, Knoww K, Craik R 1989 Determinants of recovery 12 months after hip fracture: The importance of psychosocial factors Am J Public Health 79: 279286.
  • 16
    Magaziner J, Simonsick EM, Kashner TM, Hebel JR, Kenzora JE 1990 Predictors of functional recovery one year following hospital discharge for hip fracture: A prospective study J Gerontol 45: M101M107.
  • 17
    Marottoli RA, Berkman LF, Cooney LM Jr 1992 Decline in physical function following hip fracture J Am Geriatr Soc 40: 861866.
  • 18
    Koval KJ, Skovron ML, Aharonoff GB, Meadows SE, Zuckerman JD 1995 Ambulatory ability after hip fracture: A prospective study in geriatric patients Clin Orthop 310: 150159.
  • 19
    Kaukonen JP, Karaharju EO, Porras M, Luthje P, Jakobsson A 1988 Functional recovery after fractures of the distal forearm Ann Chir Gynaecol 77: 2731.
  • 20
    Chrischilles EA, Butler CD, Davis CS, Wallace RB 1991 A model of lifetime osteoporosis impact Arch Intern Med 151: 20262032.
  • 21
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Rundle AC, Cauley JA, Cummings SR, Genant HK, for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1992 Contribution of vertebral deformities to chronic back pain and disability J Bone Miner Res 7: 449456.
  • 22
    Greendale GA, Barrett-Connor E, Ingles S, Haile R 1995 Late physical and functional effects of osteoporotic fracture in women: The Rancho Bernardo Study J Am Geriatr Soc 43: 955961.
  • 23
    Holbrook TL, Grazier K, Kelsey JL, Stauffer RN 1984 Frequency of Occurrence, Impact and Cost of Selected Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
  • 24
    Praemer A, Furner S, Rice DP 1992 Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States. 1st Ed. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
  • 25
    Phillips S, Fox N, Jacobs J, Wright WE 1988 The direct medical costs of osteoporosis for American women aged 45 and older, 1986 Bone 9: 271279.
  • 26
    Chrischilles E, Shireman T, Wallace R 1994 Cost and health effects of osteoporotic fractures Bone 15: 377386.
  • 27
    Melton LJ III, Chao EYS, Lane J 1988 Biomechanical aspects of fractures. In: RiggsBL, MeltonLJIII (eds.) Osteoporosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Raven Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 111131.
  • 28
    Greenspan SL, Myers ER, Maitland LA, Resnick NM, Hayes WC 1994 Fall severity and bone mineral density as risk factors for hip fractures in ambulatory elderly JAMA 271: 128133.
  • 29
    (Institute of Medicine 1977 Reliability of hospital discharge abstracts. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 30
    (Institute of Medicine 1977 Reliability of Medicare hospital discharge records. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 31
    Demlo LK, Campbell PM 1981 Improving hospital discharge data: Lessons from the National Hospital Discharge Survey Med Care 19: 10301040.
  • 32
    Lloyd SS, Rissing JP 1990 Physician and coding errors in patients records JAMA 254: 1330.
  • 33
    Fisher ES, Whaley FS, Krushat WM 1992 Accuracy of Medicare's hospital claims data: Progress has been made, but problems remain Am J Public Health 82: 243248.
  • 34
    Melton LJ III, Thamer M, Ray NF, Chan JK, and the National Osteoporosis Foundation Expert Panel on Osteoporotic Fractures 1996 Report: Fractures attributable to osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 12: 1623.
  • 35
    Wilcox LS, Koonin LM, Pokras R, Stauss LT, Xia Z, Peterson HB 1994 Hysterectomy in the U.S., 1988–1990 Obstet Gynecol 83: 549555.
  • 36
    (National Center for Health Statistics 1985 The National Nursing Home Survey, Summary for the United States. In: Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13, No. 97. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1758. Public Health Service. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 37
    (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1995 United States Civilian Population Estimates by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1987, 1992 and 1995. Current Population Reports, Series PPL-21, Appendix C; Series P-25, No. 1095, Table 3. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 38
    (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1995 Consumer Price Index for Hospital and Related Services, Physician Services, Medical Care Services, Professional Medical Services, Drugs, and Medical Care Commodities. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 39
    (HCFA's Skilled Nursing Facility Input Price Index 1995 HCFA Review. 16(4):265.
  • 40
    National Center for Health Statistics, Simmons WR 1970 Development of the design of the NCHS Hospital Discharge Survey. Vital and health statistics.Series 2. No. 39. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, U.S.A. (PHS publication no. 1000.)
  • 41
    (Institute of Medicine 1980 Reliability of national hospital discharge survey data: Report of a study. National Academy of Sciences: Washington, DC, U.S.A. (IOM publication no. 80-02.)
  • 42
    National Center for Health Statistics, Bryant E, Shimizu I 1988 Sample design, sampling variance, and estimation procedures for the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Vital and health statistics. Series 2. No. 108. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, U.S.A. (DHHS publication no. (PHS) 88-1382.)
  • 43
    Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, Madhok R 1996 Downturn in hip fracture incidence Public Health Rep 111: 1720.
  • 44
    Rodriguez JG, Sattin RW, Waxweiler RJ 1989 Incidence of hip fractures, United States, 1970–83 Am J Prevent Med 5: 175181.
  • 45
    Ho SC, Bacon E, Harria T, Looker A, Maggi S 1993 Hip fracture rates in Hong Kong and the United States, 1988 through 1989 Am J Public Health 83: 694697.
  • 46
    (National Center for Health Statistics 1992 National Hospital Discharge Survey (Public Use Data Tape). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 47
    (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research 1992 National Medical Expenditure Survey: Public Use Tape 14.2 Household Survey Data for Calendar Year 1987 File Documentation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 48
    (National Center for Health Statistics 1984 Utilization of Short-Stay Hospitals United States, 1982 Annual Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 49
    (National Center for Health Statistics 1993 National Hospital Discharge Survey: Annual Summary 1991. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 50
    Kanis JA, the WHO Study Group 1994 Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: Synopsis of a WHO report Osteoporosis Int 4: 368381.
  • 51
    Burner ST, Waldo DR 1995 National Health Care Expenditure Projections, 1994–2000 Health Care Financ Rev 16: 221242.
  • 52
    Schneider EL, Guralnik JM 1990 The aging of America: Impact on health care costs JAMA 263: 23352340.
  • 53
    Looker AC, Johnston CC Jr, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Lindsay RL 1995 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. women from NHANES III J Bone Miner Res 10: 796802.