Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which result from nonenzymatic reactions of glucose with tissue proteins, have been shown to accumulate on long-lived proteins in advanced aging and diabetes mellitus. Thus, AGEs have been implicated in some of the chronic complications associated with these disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the glucose-modified protein on the production of the potent bone resorption factors by cells derived from explants of human bone. AGEs stimulated the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the culture supernatants from the bone-derived cells and increased the levels of IL-6 mRNA in the cells. By contrast, the levels of IL-11 in the culture supernatants were not altered by AGEs, and the other bone resorption factors IL-1α and IL-1β were undetectable (<1.0 pg/ml) either without or with the treatment of AGEs. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed that the transcription nuclear factor-κB, which is critical for the inducible expression of IL-6, was activated in the nuclear extracts from mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells treated with AGEs. These results suggest that AGEs are involved in bone remodeling modulation by stimulating IL-6 production in human bone-derived cells.