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    Balena R, Shih M-S, Parfitt AM 1992 Bone resorption and formation on the periosteal envelope of the ilium: A histomorphometric study in healthy women J Bone Miner Res 7: 14751482.
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    Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR, Foldes J, Rao DS 1995 Relations between histologic indices of bone formation: Implications for the pathogenesis of spinal osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 10: 466473.
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    Perry III HM, Horowitz M, Morley JE, Fleming S, Jensen J, Caccione P, Miller DK, Kaiser FE, Sundarum M 1996 Aging and bone metabolism in African American and Caucasian women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 11081117.
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    Kleerekoper M, Nelson DA, Peterson EL, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P 1994 Reference data for bone mass, calciotropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in older (55–75) postmenopausal white and black women J Bone Miner Res 9: 12671276.
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    Weinstein RS, Bell NH 1988 Diminished rates of bone formation in normal Black adults New Engl J Med 319: 16981701.
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    Parisien M, Morgan D, Shen V, Schnitzer M, Liang X, Luckey M, Meier D, Nieves J, Cosman F, Lindsay R, Dempster DW 1995 Bone histomorphometry reveals subtle differences in bone formation between black and white premenopausal women J Bone Miner Res 10(suppl 1): S444.
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    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM 1996 Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the structure and geometry of iliac bone J Bone Miner Res 11: 19671975.
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    Foldes J, Parfitt AM, Shih M-S, Rao DS, Kleerekoper M 1991 Structural and geometric changes in iliac bone: Relationship to normal aging and osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 6: 759766.
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    Parfitt AM, Foldes J, Villanueva AR, Shih MS 1991 The difference in label length between demethylchlortetracycline and oxytetracycline: Implications for the interpretation of bone histomorphometry Calcif Tissue Int 48: 744777.
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    Rao DS 1983 Practical approach to bone biopsy. In: ReckerR (ed.) Bone Histomorphometry: Techniques and Interpretations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, U.S.A. pp. 311.
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    Parfitt AM, Podenphant J, Villanueva AR, Frame B 1985 Metabolic bone disease with and without osteomalacia after intestinal bypass surgery: A bone histomorphometric study Bone 6: 211220.
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    Mathews CHE, Mehr L 1979 Staining and processing bone specimens for simultaneous tetracycline-osteoid seam assessment and bone histomorphometric quantitative analysis J Histotech 2: 2324.
  • 21
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry nomenclature, symbols and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee J Bone Miner Res 2: 595610.
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    Foldes J, Shih M-S, Parfitt AM 1990 Frequency distributions of tetracycline based measurements: Implications for the interpretation of bone formation indices in the absence of double labelled surfaces J Bone Miner Res 5: 10631067.
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    Villanueva AR, Kujawa M, Mathews CHE, Parfitt AM 1983 Identification of the mineralization front: Comparison of a modified toluidine blue stain with tetracycline fluorescence Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 5: 4145.
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    Parfitt AM, Simon LS, Villanueva AR, Krane SM 1987 Procollagen type 1 carboxyterminal extension peptide in serum as a marker of collagen biosynthesis in bone: Correlation with iliac bone formation rates and comparison with total alkaline phosphatase J Bone Miner Res 2: 427436.
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    Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ 1981 Biometry. The principles and practices of statistics in biological research, 2nd ed. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
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    Altman DG 1991 Practical Statistics for Medical Research. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.
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    Eastell R, Yergey AL, Vieira NE, Cedel SL, Kumar R, Riggs BL 1991 Interrelationship among vitamin D metabolism, true calcium absorption, parathyroid function, and age in women: Evidence of an age-related intestinal resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D action J Bone Miner Res 6: 125132.
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    Duda RJ Jr, O'Brien JF, Katzmann JA, Peterson JM, Mann KG, Riggs BL 1988 Concurrent assays of circulating bone Gla-protein and bone alkaline phosphatase: Effects of sex, age, and metabolic bone disease J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66: 951957.
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    Vedi S, Compston JE, Webb A, Tighe JR 1983 Histomorphometric analysis of dynamic parameters of trabecular bone formation in the iliac crest of normal British subjects Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 5: 6974.
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    Dahl E, Nordal KP, Halse J, Attramadal A 1988 Histomorphometric analysis of normal bone from the iliac crest of Norwegian subjects Bone Miner 3: 369377.
  • 31
    Prestwood KM, Pilbeam CC, Burleson JA, Woodiel FN, Delmas PD, Deftos LJ, Raisz LG 1994 The short term effects of conjugated estrogen on bone turnover in older women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79: 366371.
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    Nordin BEC, Need AG, Bridges A, Horowitz M 1992 Relative contributions of years since menopause, age, and weight to vertebral density in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocr Metab 74: 2023.
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    Parfitt AM 1992 The two-stage concept of bone loss revisited Triangle 31: 99110.
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    Heaney RP 1994 The bone-remodeling transient: Implications for the interpretation of clinical studies of bone mass change J Bone Miner Res 9: 15151523.
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    Parfitt AM, Rao DS, Stanciu J, Villanueva AR, Kleerekoper M, Frame B 1985 Irreversible bone loss in osteomalacia: Comparison of radial photon absorptiometry with iliac bone histomorphometry during treatment J Clin Invest 76: 24032412.
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    Manolagas SC, Jilka RL 1995 Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. Emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis New Engl J Med 332: 305311.
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    Parfitt AM, Mundy GR, Roodman GD, Hughes DE, Boyce B 1996 A new model for the regulation of bone resorption, with particular reference to the effects of bisphosphonates J Bone Miner Res 11: 150159.
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    McKane WR, Khosla S, Risteli J, Robins SP, Muhs JM, Riggs BL 1996 Estrogen deficiency, and not age changes, is the cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption in elderly women whereas age changes, and not estrogen deficiency, are the cause of their decreased osteoblastic function. Trans Am Assoc Physicians (in press).
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    Manolagas SC, Jilka RL, Bellido T, O'Brien CA, Parfitt AM 1996 Interleukin 6 type cytokines and their receptors. In: BilezikianJP, RaiszLG, RodanGA (eds.) Principles of Bone Biology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, U.S.A., pp. 701713.
  • 45
    Parfitt AM 1989 Surface specific bone remodeling in health and disease. In: KleerekoperM, KraneS (eds.) Clinical Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Mary Ann Liebert Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 714.
  • 46
    Cohen-Solal M, Shih M-S, Lundy MW, Parfitt AM 1991 A new method for measuring cancellous bone erosion depth: Application to the cellular mechanisms of bone loss in post-menopausal osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 6: 13311338.
  • 47
    Brockstedt H, Kassem M, Eriksen EF, Mosekilde L, Melsen F 1993 Age- and sex-related changes in iliac cortical bone mass and remodeling Bone 14: 681691.
  • 48
    Parfitt AM 1988 Bone remodeling: Relationship to the amount and structure of bone and the pathogenesis and prevention of fractures. In: RiggsBL, MeltonLJ (eds.) Osteoporosis—Etiology, Diagnosis and Management. Raven Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 4594.
  • 49
    Parfitt AM 1990 The three organizational levels of bone remodeling—Implications for the interpretation of biochemical markers and the mechanisms of bone loss. In: ChristiansenC, OvergaardK (eds.) Osteoporosis: Proceedings of Third International Symposium 1990. Osteopress ApS, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 429434S.
  • 50
    Arlot ME, Delmas PD, Chappard D, Meunier PJ 1990 Trabecular and endocortical bone remodeling in postmenopausal osteoporosis: Comparison with normal postmenopausal women Osteoporosis Int 1: 4149.
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    Dempster DW, Parisien M, Liang X-G, Schnitzer M, Shen V, Silverberg S, Shane E, Kimmel DB, Recker R, Lindsay R, Bilezikian JP 1996 Bone histomorphometry in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism J Bone Miner Res 11(suppl 1): S98.
  • 52
    Kotowicz MA, Klee GG, Kao PC, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Cedel SL, Eriksen EF, Gonchoroff DG, Judd HL, Riggs BL 1990 Relationship between serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and bone remodeling in type I osteoporosis: Evidence that skeletal sensitivity is increased Osteoporosis Int 1: 1422.
  • 53
    Delmas PD 1992 Clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling in osteoporosis Bone 13: S17S21.
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    Hanson DA, Weis MAE, Bollen A-M, Maslan SL, Singer FR, Eyre DR 1992 A specific immunoassay for monitoring human bone resorption: Quantitation of type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptides in urine J Bone Miner Res 7: 12511258.
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    Kleerekoper M, Edelson GW 1996 Biochemical studies in the evaluation and management of osteoporosis: Current status and future prospects Endocrin Pract 2: 1319.
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    Parfitt AM 1996 Skeletal heterogeneity and the purposes of bone remodeling: Implications for the understanding of osteoporosis. In: MarcusR, FeldmanD, KelseyJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, U.S.A., pp. 315329.
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    Frost HM 1992 Perspectives: Bone's mechanical usage windows Bone Miner 19: 257271.
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    Parfitt AM 1996 Hormonal influences on bone remodeling and bone loss—Implications for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism Ann Intern Med 125: 413415.
  • 60
    Parfitt AM 1993 Pathophysiology of bone fragility. In: Christiansen C, Riis BJ (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Osteoporosis, Hong Kong. Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 164166.