SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

  • 1
    Han Z-H, Palnitkar S, Rao DS, Nelso D, Parfitt AM 1995 Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the structure and geometry of iliac bone J Bone Miner Res 11: 19671975.
  • 2
    Han Z-H, Painitkar S, Rao DS, Nelson D, Parfitt AM 1997 Effect of ethnicity and age or menopause on the remodeling and turnover of iliac bone: Implications for mechanisms of bone loss J Bone Miner Res 12: 498508.
  • 3
    SeemanE (ed.) Advances in Osteoporosis 1 Through 3. Publisher Current Medical Literature Ltd., London, U.K.
  • 4
    Dunnill MS, Anderson JA, Whitehead R 1967 Quantitative histological studies on age changes in bone J Path Bact 4: 275291.
  • 5
    Lu PW, Cowell CT, Lloyd-Jones SA, Brody JN, Howman-Giles R 1996 Volumetric bone mineral density in normal subjects aged 5–27 years J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 15861590.
  • 6
    Kelly PJ, Twomey L, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1990 Sex differences in peak adult bone mineral density J Bone Miner Res 5: 11691175.
  • 7
    Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Carlson M, Boechat I, Cann CE, Schulz ES 1987 Peak trabecular bone density: a comparison of adolescent and adult Calcif Tissue Int 43: 260262.
  • 8
    Matkovic V, Jelic T, Wardlaw GM, Ilich JZ, Goel PK, Wright JK, Ando MB, Smith KT, Heaney RP 1994 Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis J Clin Invest 93: 799808.
  • 9
    Meunier PJ, Sellami S, Briancon D, Edouard C 1990 Histological heterogeneity of apparently idiopathic osteoporosis. In: DelucaHF, FrostHM, JeeWSS, JohnstonCC, ParfittAM (eds.) Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment. UPP, Baltimore, MD, U.S.A., pp. 293301.
  • 10
    Kalender WA, Felsenberg D, Louis O, Lopez O, Lopez P, Klotz E, Osteaux M, Fraga J 1989 Reference values for trabecular and cortical vertebral bone density in single and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography Eur J Radiol 9: 7580.
  • 11
    Mosekilde L, Mosekilde L 1990 Sex differences in age-related changes in vertebral body size, density and biochemical competence in normal individuals Bone 11: 6773.
  • 12
    Genant HK, Ettinger B, Harris ST, Block JE, Steiger P 1988 Quantitative computed tomography in assessment of osteoporosis. In: RiggsBL, MeltonLJIII (eds.) Osteoporosis: Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management. Raven Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 221250.
  • 13
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CHE, Villanueva AR, Kleerkoper M, Frame B, Rao DS 1983 Relationships between surface, volume, and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in aging and in osteoporosis J Clin Invest 72: 13961409.
  • 14
    Aaron JE, Makins NB, Sagreiy K 1987 The microanatomy of trabecular bone loss in normal aging men and women Clin Orth RR 215: 260271.
  • 15
    Ruff CB, Hayes WC 1988 Sex differences in age-related remodeling of the femur and tibia J Orthop Res 6: 886896.
  • 16
    Meier DE, Luckey MM, Wallenstein S, Lapinski RH, Catherwood B 1992 Racial differences in pre- and postmenopausal bone homeostasis: association with bone density J Bone Miner Res 10: 11811189.
  • 17
    Kleerekoper M, Nelson DA, Peterson EL, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P 1994 Reference data dor bone mass, calcitropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone remodelling in older (55–75) postmenopausal white and black women J Bone Miner Res 9: 12671276.
  • 18
    Schnitzler CM, Pettifor JM, Mesquita JM, Bird MDT, Schnaid E, Smith AE 1990 Histomorphometry of iliac creast bone in 346 normal black and white South African adults Bone Miner 10: 183199.
  • 19
    Luckey MM, Wallenstein S, Lapinski, Meier DE 1996 A prospective study of bone loss in African-American and white women—A clinical research center study J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 29482956.
  • 20
    Perry HM III, Horowitz M, Morley JE, Fleming S, Jensen J, Caccione P, Miller DK, Kaiser FE, Sundarum M 1996 Aging and bone metabolism in African American and Caucasian women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 11081117.
  • 21
    Cummings SR, Cauley JA, Palermo L, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Black D, Faulkner KG 1994 Racial differences in hip axis lengths might explain racial differences in rates of hip fracture Osteoporosis Int 4: 226229.
  • 22
    Nakamura T, Turner CH, Yoshikawa T, Slemenda CW, Peacock M, Burr DB, Mizuno Y, Orimo H, Ouchi Y, Johnston CC Jr 1994 Do variations in hip geometry explain differences in hip fracture risk between Japanese and white Americans? J Bone Miner Res 9: 10711076.
  • 23
    Widdowson EM, Spray CM 1951 Chemical development in utero Arch Dis Childhood 2: 205214.
  • 24
    Dickerson JWT 1962 Changes in the composition of the human femur during growth Biochem J 82: 5661.
  • 25
    Mitchell HH, Hamilton TS, Steggerda FR, Bean HW 1945 The chemical composition of the adult human body and its bearing on the biochemistry of growth J Biochem 158: 625637.
  • 26
    Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Roe TF, Carlson M, Senac MO, Boechat MI, Huang HK, Schulz EE, Libanati CR, Cann CC 1988 Vertebral bone density in children: effect of puberty Radiology 166: 847850.
  • 27
    Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Stefano M, Costen G, Goodman WG 1991 Changes in vertebral bone density in black girls and white girls during childhood and puberty New Engl J Med 325: 15971600.
  • 28
    Tabensky AD, Williams J, Deluca V, Briganti E, Seeman E 1996 Bone mass, areal and volumetric bone density are equally accurate, sensitive and specific surrogates of the breaking strength of the vertebral body: An in vitro study J Bone Miner Res 11: 19811987.
  • 29
    Cundy T, Cornish J, Evans MC, Gamble G, Stapleton J, Reid IR 1995 Sources of interracial differences in bone density J Bone Miner Res 10: 368373.
  • 30
    Bhudhikanok GS, Wang M-C, Eckert K, Matkin C, Marcus R, Bachrach LK 1996 Differences in bone mineral in young Asian and Caucasian Americans may reflect differences in bone size J Bone Miner Res 11: 15451556.
  • 31
    Russell-Aulet M, Wang J, Thornton J, Colt EWD, Pierson RN 1991 Bone mineral density and mass by total body dual photon absorptiometry in normal white and Asian men J Bone Miner Res 10: 11091113.
  • 32
    Patel DN, Pettifor JM, Becker PJ, Grieve C, Leschner K 1992 The effect of ethnic group on appendicular bone mass in children J Bone Miner Res 7: 263272.
  • 33
    McCormick DP, Ponder SW, Fawcett HD, Palmer JL 1991 Spinal bone mineral density in 355 normal and obese children and adolescents: Evidence for ethnic and sex differences J Bone Miner Res 6: 507513.
  • 34
    Ross PD, He Y-F, Yates AJ, Coupland C, Ravn P, McClung M, Thompson D, Wasnich RD, for the EPIC Study Group 1996 Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian Women Calcif Tissue Int 59: 339343.
  • 35
    Fujii Y, Tsutsumi M, Tsunenari T, Fukase M, Yoshimoto Y, Fujita T, Genant HK 1989 Quantitative computed tomography of lumbar vertebrae in Japanese patients with osteoporosis Bone Miner 6: 8794.
  • 36
    Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Hughes PCR, Carter BS 1976 Relative importance of growth hormone and sex steroids for the growth at puberty of trunk length, limb length, and muscle width in growth hormone-deficient children J Pediat 89: 10001008.
  • 37
    Preece MA 1982 The development of skeletal sex differences at adolescence. In: RussoP, GassG (eds.) Human Adaptation. Department of Biological Sciences, Cumberland College of Health Sciences, Sydney, Australia, pp. 113.
  • 38
    Preece MA, Pan H, Ratcliffe SG 1992 Auxological aspects of male and female puberty Acta Paediatr 383: 1113.
  • 39
    Gordon CL, Halton JM, Atkinson SA, Webber CE 1991 The contributions of growth and puberty to peak bone mass Growth Dev Aging 55: 257262.
  • 40
    Trotter M, Broman GE, Peterson RR 1960 Densities of bones of white and Negro skeletons J Bone Joint Surg 42A: 5058.
  • 41
    Luckey MM, Meier DE, Mandeli JP, DaCosta MC, Hubbard ML, Goldsmith SJ 1989 Radial and vertebral bone density in white and black women: evidence for racial differences in premenopausal bone homeostasis J Clin Endocrinol Metab 69: 762770.
  • 42
    Garn SM, Nagy JM, Sandusky ST 1972 Differential sexual dimorphism in bone diameters of subjects of European and Africa Ancestry Am J Phys Anthrop 37: 127130.
  • 43
    Weinstein RS, Bell NH 1988 Diminished rates of bone formation in normal black adults New Engl J Med 319: 16981701.
  • 44
    Bloom RA, Pogrund H 1982 Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu—its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture Skeletal Radiol 8: 5962.
  • 45
    Solomon L 1979 Bone density in ageing caucasian and African populations Lancet 2: 13271329.
  • 46
    Frisancho AR, Garn SM, Ascoli W 1970 Subperiosteal and endosteal bone apposition during adolescence Human Biol 42: 639664.
  • 47
    Garn SM 1970 The Earlier Gain and Later Loss of Cortical Bone. C.C. Thomas Publishers, Springfield, IL, U.S.A.
  • 48
    Odita JC 1994 Cortical bone mass in Nigerian children: An anthropometric study Skeletal Radiol 23: 4952.
  • 49
    Garn SM, Sandusky ST, Nagy JM, McCann MB 1972 Advanced skeletal development in low-income negro children J Paediatric 80: 965969.
  • 50
    Hamill PVV, Johnston FE, Lemeshow S 1973 Body weight, stature and sitting height: White and Negro youths 12–17 years. DHEW Publications No. (HRA) 74-1608. Vital and health statistics series 11 No. 126., 1973 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).
  • 51
    Cummings SR, Cauley JA, Palermo L, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Black D, Faulkner KG 1994 Racial differences in hip axis lengths might explain racial differences in rates of hip fracture Osteoporosis Int 4: 226229.
  • 52
    Mikhail MB, Vaswani AN, Aloia JF 1996 Racial differences in femoral dimensions and their relationship to hip fractures Osteoporosis Int 6: 2224.
  • 53
    Nakamura T, Turner CH, Yoshikawa T, Slemenda CW, Peacock M, Burr DB, Mizuno Y, Orimo H, Ouchi Y, Johnston CC Jr 1994 Do variations in hip geometry explain differences in hip fracture risk between Japanese and white Americans? J Bone Miner Res 9: 10711076.
  • 54
    Meredith HV 1978 Secular change in sitting height and lower limb height of children, youths, and young adults of Afro-black, European, and Japanese ancestry Growth 42: 3741.
  • 55
    Malina RM, Brown KH 1987 Relative lower extremity length in Mexican American and in American black and white youth Am J Phys Anthropol 72: 8994.
  • 56
    Cameron N, Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH 1982 A longitudinal analysis of the growth of limb segments in adolescence Ann Human Biol 9: 211220.
  • 57
    Tanner JM, Hayashi T, Preece MA, Cameron N 1982 Increase in length of leg relative to trunk in Japanese children and adults from 1957 to 1977: Comparison with British and with Japanese Americans Ann Human Biol 9(5): 411423.
  • 58
    Bakwin H 1964 Secular increase in height: Is the end in sight? Lancet 2: 11951196.
  • 59
    Reid IR, Chin K, Evans MC, Cundy T 1996 Longer femoral necks in the young: A predictor of further increases in hip fracture incidence? NZ Med J 108: 234235.
  • 60
    Elffors I, Allander E, Kanis JA 1994 The variable incidence of hip fracture in Southern Europe: the MEDOS Study Osteoporosis Int 4: 253263.
  • 61
    Bacon WE, Maggi S, Looker A, Harris T, Nair CR, Giaconi J, Honkanen R, Ho SC, Peffers KA, Torring O, Gass R, Gonzalez N 1996 International comparison of hip fracture rates in 1988–89 Osteoporosis Int 6: 6975.
  • 62
    Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, Madhok R 1996 Downturn in hip fracture incidence Public Health Rep 111: 146150.
  • 63
    Seeman E, Hopper J, Bach L, Cooper M, McKay J, Jerums G 1989 Reduced bone mass in the daughters of women with osteoporosis New Engl J Med 320: 554558.
  • 64
    Seeman E, Hopper JL, Tsalamandris C, Formica C 1994 Bone density in daughters of women with hip fractures J Bone Miner Res 9: 739743.
  • 65
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL 1981 Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging J Clin Invest 67: 328335.
  • 66
    Israel H 1973 Progressive enlargement of the vertebral body as part of the process of human skeletal ageing Age Ageing 2: 7179.
  • 67
    Bouxsein ML, Myburgh KH, van der Meulen MCH, Lindenberger E, Marcus R 1994 Age-related differences in cross-sectional geometry of the forearm bones in healthy women Calcif Tissue Int 54: 113118.
  • 68
    Laval-Jeantet A-M, Bergot C, Carroll R, Garcia-Schaefer F 1983 Cortical bone senescence and mineral bone density of the humerus Calcif Tissue Int 35: 268272.
  • 69
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1994 Progressive loss of bone in the femoral neck in elderly people: Longitudinal findings from the Dubbo osteoporosis epidemiology study Br Med J 309: 691695.
  • 70
    Ensrud KE, Palermo L, Black DM, Cauley J, Jergas M, Orwoll ES, Nevitt MC, Fox KM, Cummings SR 1995 Hip and calcaneal bone loss increase with advancing age: Longitudinal results from the study of osteoporotic fractures J Bone Miner Res 10: 17781787.
  • 71
    Sandor T, Felsenberg D, Kalender WA, Clain A, Brown E 1992 Compact and trabecular components of the spine using quantitative computed tomography Calcif Tissue Int 50: 502506.
  • 72
    Parisien M, Cosman F, Mellish RWE, Schnitzer M, Nieves J, Silverberg SJ, Shane E, Kimmel D, Recker RR, Bilezikian JP, Lindsay R, Dempster DW 1995 Bone structure in postmenopausal hyperparathyroid, osteoporotic, and normal women J Bone Miner Res 10: 13931399.
  • 73
    Kotowicz MA, Klee GG, Kao PC, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Cedel SL, Eriksen EF, Gonchoroff DG, Judd HL, Riggs BL 1990 Relationship between serun intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and bone remodeling in type 1 osteoporosis: evidence that skeletal sensitivity is increased Osteoporosis Int 1: 1422.
  • 74
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL 1995 Proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults Osteoporosis Int 5: 389409.
  • 75
    Seeman E 1995 Present and future of osteoporosis therapy Bone 17: 23S30S.
  • 76
    Consensus Development Conference 1993 Diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis Am J Med 94: 646650.
  • 77
    Britton JM, Davie MWJ 1990 Mechanical properties of bone from iliac crest and relationship to L5 vertebral bone Bone 11: 2128.
  • 78
    Kann P, Graeben S, Beyer J 1994 Age-dependence of bone material quality shown by the measurement of frequency of resonance in the ulna Calcif Tissue Int 54: 96100.
  • 79
    Buckland-Wright JC, Lynch JA, Rymer J, Fogelman I 1994 Fractal signature analysis of macroradiographs measures trabecular organization in lumbar vertebrae of postmenopausal women Calcif Tissue Int 54: 106112.
  • 80
    Myers TJ, Battocletti JH, Mahesh M, Gulati M, Wilson CR, Pintar F, Reinartz J 1994 Comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with dual-photon absorptiometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the measurement of thoracic vertebral bone mineral density: compressive force versus bone mineral Osteoporosis Int 4: 129137.
  • 81
    Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Carey MA, Johnston CC Jr 1995 Choosing between predictors of fractures J Bone Miner Res 10: 18161822.
  • 82
    Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Agnusdei D, Palmieri R, Rossi S, Gennari C 1995 Diagnostic value of ultrasound analysis and bone densitometry as predictors of vertebral deformity in postmenopausal women Osteoporosis Int 5: 413418.
  • 83
    Yu W, Glüer C-C, Grampp S, Jergas M, Fuerst T, Wu CY, Lu Y, Fan B, Genant HK 1995 Spinal bone mineral assessment in postmenopausal women: A comparison between dual x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography Osteoporosis Int 5: 433439.
  • 84
    Travers-Gustafson D, Stegman MR, Heaney RP, Recker RR 1995 Ultrasound, densitometry, and extraskeletal appendicular fracture risk factors: A cross-sectional report on the Saunders County Bone Quality Study Calcif Tissue Int 57: 267271.
  • 85
    Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy M-C, Marcelli C, Grandjean H, Muller C, Cormier C, Breart G, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1996 Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS prospective study J Bone Miner Res 11: 15311538.
  • 86
    Riis BJ, Hansen MA, Jensen AM, Overgaard K, Christiansen C 1996 Low bone mass and fast rate of bone loss at menopause: Equal risk factors for future fracture: A 15 year followup study Bone 19: 912.
  • 87
    Biggemann M, Hilweg D, Brinckmann P 1988 Prediction of the compressive strength of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography Skel Radiol 17: 264269.
  • 88
    Carter DR, Bouxsein ML, Marcus R 1992 New approaches for interpreting projected bone densitometry data J Bone Miner Res 7: 137145.