• 1
    Lanyon LE 1992 Control of bone architecture by functional load bearing J Bone Miner Res 7:S369S375.
  • 2
    Lindsay R, Hart DM, Aitkin JM, MacDonald EB, Anderson JB, Clarke AC 1976 Long-term prevention of osteoporosis by oestrogen: Evidence for an increased bone mass after delayed onset of treatment Lancet 1:10381041.
  • 3
    Lindsay R, Maclean A, Kraszewski A, Hart DM, Clark AC, Garwood J 1978 Bone response to termination of estrogen treatment Lancet 1:13251327.
  • 4
    Christiansen C, Christiansen MS, Transbol I 1981 Bone mass in postmenopausal women after withdrawal of estrogen/gestagen replacement therapy Lancet 1:459461.
  • 5
    Nielsen S, Munk-Jensen N, Obel EB, Barenholdt O, 1990 Prophylaxis of bone loss: Long-term effects of continuous and sequential estrogen/progestin administration and identification of women at risk. In: DeLucaH, MazessR, (eds.) Osteoporosis: Physiological Basis, Assessment, and Treatment. Elsevier, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 147160.
  • 6
    Marx CW, Dailey III GE, Cheney C, Vint II VC, Muchmore DB 1992 Do estrogens improve bone mineral density in osteoporotic women over age 65 J Bone Miner Res 7:12751279.
  • 7
    Heaney RP 1990 Estrogen-calcium interaction in the postmenopause: A quantitative description Bone Miner 11:6784.
  • 8
    Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, Takahashi H, Cohen RM, Specker B, Williams T, Lubahn DB, Korach K 1994 Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man N Engl J Med 331:10561061.
  • 9
    Murphy S, Khaw KT, Cassidy A, Compston JE 1993 Sex hormones and mineral density in elderly men Bone Miner 20:133140.
  • 10
    Frost HM 1987 Editorial Comment. The mechanostat: A proposed pathogenic mechanism of osteoporoses and the bone mass effects of mechanical and nonmechanical agents Bone Miner 2:7385.
  • 11
    Frost HM 1992 Perspectives. The role of changes in mechanical usage set points in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 7:253261.
  • 12
    Cheng MZ, Zaman G, Lanyon LE 1994 Estrogen enhances the stimulation of bone collagen synthesis by loading and exogenous prostacyclin, but not prostaglandin E2, in organ culture of rat ulna J Bone Miner Res 9:805816.
  • 13
    Cheng MZ, Zaman G, Rawlinson SCF, Suswillo RFL, Lanyon LE 1996 Mechanical loading and sex hormone interactions in organ cultures of rat ulna J Bone Miner Res 11:502511.
  • 14
    Rawlinson SCF, El-Haj AJ, Minter SL, Tavares IA, Bennett A, Lanyon LE 1991 Loading related increases in prostaglandin production in cores of adult canine cancellous bone in vitro: A role for prostacyclin in adaptive bone remodeling J Bone Miner Res 6:13451351.
  • 15
    Osborne CK, Monaco ME, Lippman ME, Kahn CR 1978 Correlation among insulin binding, degradation, and biological activity in human breast cancer cells in long-term tissue culture Cancer Res 38:94102.
  • 16
    Dietrich JW, Paddcock DN 1979 In vitro effects of ionophore A23187 on skeletal collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis Endocrinology 104:493499.
  • 17
    Webster DF, Harvey W 1979 A quantitative assay for collage synthesis in microwell fibroblast cultures Anal Biochem 19:220224.
  • 18
    Meghji S, Sandy JR, Harvey W, Henderson D, Ali N 1992 Stimulation of bone collagen and non-collagenous protein synthesis by products of 5- and 12-lipoxygenase: Determination by use of a simple quantitative assay Bone Miner 18:119132.
  • 19
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG, 1967 Statistical Methods, 6th Ed. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, U.S.A., pp. 258298.
  • 20
    Chow JW, Chambers TJ 1994 Indomethacin has distinct early and late actions on bone formation induced by mechanical loading Am J Physiol 167:E287E292.
  • 21
    Yeh JK, Aloia JF, Barilla M-L 1994 Effects of 17β-estradiol replacement and treadmill exercise on vertebral and femoral bones of the ovariectomized rat Bone Miner 24:223234.
  • 22
    Rawlinson SCF, Subbaraman M, Baylink DJ, Lanyon LE 1993 Exogenous prostacyclin, but not prostaglandin E2, produces similar responses in both G6PD activity and RNA production as mechanical loading, and increases IGF-II release, in adult cancellous bone in culture Calcif Tissue Int 53:324327.
  • 23
    Somjen D, Binderman I, Berger E, Harell A 1980 Bone remodelling induced by physical stress is prostaglandin E2 mediated Biochim Biophys Acta 627:91100.
  • 24
    Yeh C-K, Rodan GA 1984 Tensile forces enhance prostaglandin E synthesis in osteoblastic cells grown on collagen ribbons Calcif Tissue Int 36:S67S71.
  • 25
    Binderman I, Shimshoni Z, Somjen D 1984 Biochemical pathways in the translation of physical stimulus into biological message Calcif Tissue Int 36:S82S85.
  • 26
    Binderman I, Zor U, Kaye AM, Shimshoni Z, Harell A, Somjen D 1988 The transduction of mechanical force into biochemical events in bone cells may involve activation of phospholipase A2 Calcif Tissue Int 42:261266.
  • 27
    Murray DW, Rushton N 1990 The effect of strain on bone cell prostaglandin release: A new experimental method Calcif Tissue Int 47:3539.
  • 28
    Raisz LG, Koolemans-Beynan AR 1974 Inhibition of bone collagen synthesis by prostaglandin E2 in organ culture Prostaglandins 8:377385.
  • 29
    Dietrich JW, Goodson JM, Raisz LG 1975 Stimulation of bone resorption by various prostaglandins in organ culture Prostaglandins 10:231240.
  • 30
    Jee WSS, Ueno K, Deng YP, Woodbury DM 1985 The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats: Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and corticoendosteal bone formation Calcif Tissue Int 37:148157.
  • 31
    Jee WSS, Ueno K, Kimmel DB, Woodbury DM, Price P, Woodbury L 1987 The Role of bone cells in increasing metaphyseal hard tissue in rapidly growing rats treated with prostaglandin E2 Bone 8:171178.
  • 32
    Jee WSS, Mori S, Li XI, Chan S 1990 Prostaglandin E2 enhances cortical bone mass and activates intracortical bone remodelling in intact and ovariectomized female rats Bone 11:253266.
  • 33
    Mori S, Jee Wss, Li XJ, Chan S, Kimmel DB 1990 Effects of prostaglandin E2 on production of new cancellous bone in the axial skeleton of ovariectomized rats Bone 11:103113.
  • 34
    Flanagan AM, Chambers TJ 1992 Stimulation of bone nodule formation in vitro by prostaglandin E1 and E2 Endocrinology 130:443448.
  • 35
    McCarthy TL, Centralla M, Raisz LG, Canalis E 1991 Prostaglandin E2 stimulates insulin-like growth factor I synthesis in osteoblast-enriched culture from fetal rat bone Endocrinology 128:28952900.
  • 36
    Raisz LG, Fall PM, Bari YG, McCarthy TL, Kream BE, Canalis E 1993 Effects of prostaglandin E2 on bone formation in cultured fetal rat calvariae: Role of insulin-like growth factor-I Endocrinology 133:15041510.
  • 37
    Ernst M, Heath JK, Rodan GA 1989 Estradiol effects on proliferation, messenger ribonucleic acid for collagen and insulin-like growth factor-I, and parathyroid hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblastic cells from calvariae and long bone Endocrinology 125:825833.
  • 38
    Forwood MR 1996 Inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) mediates the induction of bone formation by mechanical loading in vivo J Bone Miner Res 11:16881693.
  • 39
    Pilbeam CC, Raisz LG, Voznesensky O, Alander CB, Delman BN, Kawaguchi H 1995 Autoregulation of inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase in osteoblastic cells by prostaglandin J Bone Miner Res 10:406414.
  • 40
    Klein-Nulend J, Burger EH, Semeins CM, Raisz LG, Pilbeam CC 1997 Pulsating fluid flow stimulates prostaglandin release and inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase mRNA expression in primary mouse bone cells J Bone Miner Res 12:4551.
  • 41
    Notelovitz M, Martin D, Tesar R, Khan FY, Probart C, Fields C, McKenzie L 1991 Estrogen therapy and variable resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women J Bone Miner Res 6:583590.
  • 42
    Kohrt WM, Snead DB, Slatopolsky E, Birge SJ Jr 1995 Additive effects of weight-bearing exercise and estrogen on bone mineral density in older women J Bone Miner Res 10:13031311.