SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Drinkwater BL, Grimston SK, Raab-Cullen DM, Snow-Harter CM 1995 Osteoporosis and exercise Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:iviii.
  • 2
    Välimäki MJ, Kärkkäinen M, Lamberg-Allardt C, Laitinen K, Alhava E, Heikkinen J, Impivaara O, Mäkelä P, Palmgren J, Seppänen R, Vuori I, The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study Group 1994 Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass Br Med J 309:230235.
  • 3
    Heinonen A, Oja P, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Haapasalo H, Mänttäri A, Vuori I 1995 Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton Bone 17:197203.
  • 4
    Etherington J, Harris PA, Nandra D, Hart DJ, Wolman RL, Doyle DV, Spector TD 1996 The effect of weight-bearing exercise on bone mineral density: A study of female ex-elite athletes and the general population J Bone Miner Res 11:13331338.
  • 5
    Slemenda CW, Johnston CC 1994 High intensity activities in young women: Site specific bone mass effects among female figure skaters Bone Miner 20:125132.
  • 6
    Cooper C, Cawley M, Bhalla A, Egger P, Ring F, Morton L, Barker D 1995 Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women J Bone Miner Res 10:940947.
  • 7
    Heinonen A, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Oja P, Pasanen M, Rinne M, Uusi-Rasi K, Vuori I 1996 Randomised controlled trial of effect of high-impact exercise on selected risk factors for osteoporotic fractures Lancet 348:13431347.
  • 8
    Friedlander AL, Genant HK, Sadowsky S, Byl NN, Glüer C-C 1995 A two-year program of aerobics and weight training enhances bone mineral density of young women J Bone Miner Res 10:574585.
  • 9
    Nelson ME, Fiatarone MA, Morganti CM, Trice I, Greenberg RA, Evans WJ 1994 Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures: A randomized controlled trial JAMA 272:19091914.
  • 10
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B 1994 Walking is related to bone density and rates of bone loss Am J Med 96:2026.
  • 11
    Uusi-Rasi K, Nygård C-H, Oja P, Pasanen M, Sievänen H, Vuori I 1994 Walking at work and bone mineral density of premenopausal women Osteoporos Int 4:336340.
  • 12
    Cumming RG 1990 Calcium intake and bone mass: A quantitative review of the evidence Calcif Tissue Int 47:194201.
  • 13
    Dawson-Hughes B 1991 Calcium supplementation and bone loss: A review of controlled clinical trials Am J Clin Nutr 54:274S280S.
  • 14
    Johnston CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC, Peacock M 1992 Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children N Engl J Med 327:8287.
  • 15
    Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM, Eggli D, Kieselhorst K, Kulin HE 1993 Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls JAMA 270:841844.
  • 16
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S 1990 A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women N Engl J Med 323:878883.
  • 17
    Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ 1993 Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women N Engl J Med 328:460464.
  • 18
    Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor E 1995 An 18-year prospective study of dietary calcium and bone mineral density in the hip Calcif Tissue Int 56:364367.
  • 19
    Welten DC, Kemper HCG, Post GB, van Staveren WA 1995 A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium intake on bone mass in young and middle aged females and males J Nutr 125:28022813.
  • 20
    Specker BL 1996 Evidence for an interaction between calcium intake and physical activity on changes in bone mineral density J Bone Miner Res 11:15391544.
  • 21
    Wickham CAC, Walsh K, Cooper C, Barker DLP, Margetts BM, Morris J, Bruce SA 1989 Dietary calcium, physical activity, and risk of hip fracture: A prospective study Br Med J 299:889892.
  • 22
    van Beresteijn ECH, van't Hof, Schaafsma G, de Waard H, Duursma SA 1990 Habitual dietary calcium intake and cortical bone loss in perimenopausal women: A longitudinal study Calcif Tissue Int 47:338344.
  • 23
    Angus RM, Sambrook PN, Pocock NA, Eisman JA 1988 Dietary intake and bone mineral density Bone Miner 4:265277.
  • 24
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Melton LJ III, Richelson LS, Judd HL, O'Fallon WM 1987 Dietary calcium intake and rates of bone loss in women J Clin Invest 80:979982.
  • 25
    Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN, Gilbert C, Pocock NA, Eisman JA 1994 Lifestyle factors and bone density in the elderly: Implications for osteoporosis prevention J Bone Miner Res 9:13391346.
  • 26
    Nelson ME, Fisher EC, Dilmanian FA, Dallal GE, Evans WJ 1991 A 1-y walking program and increased dietary calcium in postmenopausal women: Effects on bone Am J Clin Nutr 53:13041311.
  • 27
    Prince RL, Smith M, Dick IM, Price RI, Webb PG, Henderson NK, Harris MM 1991 Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: A comparative study of exercise, calcium supplementation, and hormone-replacement therapy N Engl J Med 325:11891195.
  • 28
    Prince R, Devine A, Dick I, Criddle A, Kerr D, Kent N, Price R, Randell A 1995 The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women J Bone Miner Res 10:10681075.
  • 29
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, Genant HK, Mascioli SR, Scott JC, Seeley DG, Steiger P, Vogt TM, The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1990 Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women JAMA 263:665668.
  • 30
    Ross PD, Davis JW, Vogel JM, Wasnich RD 1990 A critical review of bone mass and the risk of fractures in osteoporosis Calcif Tissue Int 46:149161.
  • 31
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurence of osteoporotic fractures Br Med J 312:12541259.
  • 32
    Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Warden KE, Scott WW, Gopala UR 1990 Predicting femoral neck strength from bone mineral data: A structural approach Invest Radiol 25:618.
  • 33
    Lanyon LE 1987 Functional strain in bone as an objective, and controlling stimulus for adaptive bone remodelling J Biomech 20:10831093.
  • 34
    Kimmel DB 1993 A paradigm for skeletal strength homeostasis J Bone Miner Res 8 (Suppl 2):S515S522.
  • 35
    Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Scott WW Jr, Plato CC, Tobin JD, Quan CA 1992 Sex differences in geometry of the femoral neck with aging: A structural analysis of bone mineral data Calcif Tissue Int 50:2429.
  • 36
    Yoshikawa T, Turner CH, Peacock M, Slemenda CW, Weaver CM, Teegarden D, Markwardt P, Burr DB 1994 Geometric structure of the femoral neck measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry J Bone Miner Res 9:10531064.
  • 37
    Bouxsein ML, Myburgh KH, van der Meulen MCH, Lindenberger E, Marcus R 1994 Age-related differences in cross-sectional geometry of the forearm bones in healthy women Calcif Tissue Int 54:113118.
  • 38
    Feick SA, Thomas CDL, Clement JG 1996 Age trends in remodelling of the femoral midshaft differ between the sexes J Orthop Res 14:590597.
  • 39
    Sievänen H, Kannus P, Nieminen V, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Estimation of various mechanical characteristics of human bones using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: Methodology and precision Bone 18(Suppl 1):17S27S.
  • 40
    Faulkner KG, Cummings SR, Black D, Palermo L, Glüer C-C, Genant HK 1993 Simple measurements of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture: The study of osteoporotic fractures J Bone Miner Res 8:12111217.
  • 41
    Peacock M, Turner CH, Liu G, Manatunga AK, Timmerman L, Johnston CC Jr 1995 Better discrimination of hip fracture using bone density, geometry and architecture Osteoporos Int 5:167173.
  • 42
    Uusi-Rasi K, Salmi H-M, Fogelholm M 1994 Estimation of calcium and riboflavin intake by a short diary Scand J Nutr 38:122124.
  • 43
    Anderson JJB 1992 The role of nutrition in the functioning of skeletal tissue Nutr Rev 50:388394.
  • 44
    Matkovic V, Heaney RP 1992 Calcium balance during human growth: Evidence for threshold behaviours Am J Clin Nutr 55:992996.
  • 45
    Block G 1982 A review of validation of dietary assessment methods Am J Epidemiol 115:492505.
  • 46
    Nygård C-H, Kilbom Å, Hjelm EW, Winkel J, Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group 1994 Life-time occupational exposure to heavy work and individual physical capacity Int J Ind Ergon 14:365372.
  • 47
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Viitasalo J, Pasanen M, Oja P, Vuori I 1994 Reproducibility of computer measurement of maximal isometric strength and electromyography in sedentary middle-aged women Eur J Appl Physiol 68:310314.
  • 48
    Oja P, Laukkanen R, Pasanen M, Tyry T, Vuori I 1991 A 2-km walking test for assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults Int J Sports Med 12:356362.
  • 49
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women J Bone Miner Res 11:490501.
  • 50
    Haapasalo H, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Dimensions and estimated mechanical characteristics of the humerus after long-term tennis loading J Bone Miner Res 11:864872.
  • 51
    Blair SN, Dowda M, Pate RR, Kronenfeld J, Howe HG Jr, Parker G, Blair A, Fridinger F 1991 Reliability of long-term recall of participation in physical activity by middle-aged men and women Am J Epidemiol 133:266275.
  • 52
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1995 Effect of starting age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players Ann Intern Med 123:2731.
  • 53
    Uusi-Rasi K, Haapasalo H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Sievänen H, Oja P, Vuori I 1997 Determinants of bone mineralization in 8- to 20-year old Finnish females Eur J Clin Nutr 51:5459.
  • 54
    Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ 1988 Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women Ann Intern Med 108:824828.
  • 55
    Vuori I, Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Oja P 1994 Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral density and content in young women: A study of mechanical loading and deloading on human bones Calcif Tissue Int 55:5967.
  • 56
    The Nordic Working Group on Diet and Nutrition 1996 Nordic nutrition recommendations Scand J Nutr 40:161165.